Fishing operations likely to have a significant effect on a marine Natura 2000 area shall be subject to prior assessment and authorisation according to Article 6.3 of the Habitats Directive. This provision, partly also article 6.2, and in particular the cjeu case law, implies that this prior control should be applied rather often in practice, even for recurrent fishery irrespective of when the first fishing operation occurred in an area. Article 11 of the Common Fisheries Policy Regulation entails that Sweden and other Member States apply Article 6 of the Habitats Directive within the entire exclusive economic zone, to both own and foreign fishing vessels. A Member State is also, under certain preconditions, empowered to impose restrictions on fishery not supported by article 6 of the Habitats Directive, especially within the 12 nautical miles zone. A Member State is not formally hindered from excluding fishery from prior assessment and authorisation if instead general requirements on fishery in legislation can ensure that no future fishing operation is likely to have a significant effect on the Natura 2000 area. However, cjeu case law indicates that it would be difficult to fulfil that precondition.
Havs- och vattenmyndigheten (2013); Vägledning Reglering av fiske i marina skyddade områden. Report 2013:13 (hereafter Havs- och vattenmyndigheten 2013) pp. 23–26. As regards damages from bottom trawling etc. see also Ospar Commission Quality Status Report 2010 http://qsr2010.ospar.org/en/ch08_01_01.html.
Eriksson et al (2009); Declines in predatory fish promote bloom-forming macroalgae in Ecological Applications 19(8) 2009 pp. 1975–1988 Cassini et al (2008); Multi-level trophic cascades in a heavily exploited open marine ecosystem Proc. R. Soc. B 2008 275 doi: 10.1098/rspb.2007.1752 and Frank et al (2005); Trophic Cascades in a Formerly Cod-Dominated Ecosystem 10.1126/science.1108228.
European Commission (2000); Managing Natura 2000 Sites The provisions of Article 6 of the Habitats Directive 92/43/EEC European Communities (hereafter European Commission) section 4.3.1.
Naturvårdsverket (2003); Natura 2000 i Sverige Handbok med allmänna råd 2003:9 p. 40.