The planning and approval of large-scale infrastructure projects in Germany follows - in general - the rules and regulations of a planning approval procedure according to the administrative procedure laws and the respective specialised planning law. The planning approval decision is a discretionary decision of the relevant competent authority. It integrates all necessary permits with respect to the project applied for. Therefore, the planning procedure is highly complex and sometimes extremely time-consuming. In exchange, the planning approval decision offers a high degree of legal certainty generally including the right of expropriation.