The Late Middle Kingdom (Thirteenth to Seventeenth Dynasties): The Chronological Framework

In: Journal of Egyptian History
Detlef Franke
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The article summarizes the state of the art in chronology of the late Middle Kingdom, which the author takes to also encompass the so-called Second Intermediate Period. Moving from the king-list of the Turin Royal Canon and from Kim Ryholt's investigation, the study focuses on the internal chronology of Dynasties 13–17 by drawing upon historical data from commemorative inscriptions and seals, with a strong attention to sources from Dynasties 13 and 16. Dynasty 13 is to be divided into two halves and four parts of different length: the second part marks the zenith of the period, the end of the third part corresponds to the beginning of the so-called Second Intermediate Period, while the end of the fourth part witnesses the dynastic shift from the North to Thebes. Ryholt's Upper-Egyptian “Abydos Dynasty” contemporary with the Theban 16th Dynasty, as well his idea of a short-time conquest of Thebes by the Hyksos are dismissed. The article ends with remarks on the sequence of kings during Dynasty 17 as well as a chronological table of the Middle Kingdom.

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