The Servants of Khonsu in Thebes Neferhotep and its Hierarchy of ḥm-nṯr Priests during the Twenty-First Dynasty

in Journal of Egyptian History
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Considered as the legitimate son and heir of Amun, Khonsu gained importance during the Ramesside Period in parallel with the birth of the Renaissance doctrine. This prominence is reflected in the biographical and genealogical information, which documents a substantial increase in the number of individuals performing administrative and religious functions for the different forms of Khonsu by the Twenty-First Dynasty.

The complete prosopography of the personnel relating to the cult of Khonsu in Thebes Neferhotep presents new insights into a collective, subordinated to the clergy of Amun and active in more than one cult throughout the Karnak complex, but which fulfilled a significant role at Thebes. In this regard, the title of Third ḥm-nṯr priest of Khonsu must be highlighted; the contextualization of the emergence of this office and the study of its holders builds solid foundations for a better understanding of the Theban cultic and administrative domains leading up to and during the Twenty-First Dynasty.

The Servants of Khonsu in Thebes Neferhotep and its Hierarchy of ḥm-nṯr Priests during the Twenty-First Dynasty

in Journal of Egyptian History



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See Posener“Recherches sur le dieu Khonsou” 345.


Forgeau“Horus enfant” 8; Naguib Le clergé féminin 53–54 and 207–10; de Meulenaere “Isis et Mout”; Berlandini “Petits monuments” 101–09.


NaguibLe clergé féminin54.


As mentioned for instance in: Taylor“Nodjmet Payankh and Herihor” 1144; or Jansen-Winkeln “Relative chronology” 226. For the inscriptions and decorations of the temple see Khonsui and ii.


Broekman“Theban Priestly and Governmental Offices” 95 “The Leading Theban Priests” 125 and “On the Chronology and Genealogy” 25; Jamen “Les quatrièmes prophétes d’Amon.”


Jansen-Winkeln“Relative chronology” 229. As regards this possible change in the political structure and the presence of the northern kings in Upper Egypt we should bear in mind that while pharaohs were previously unnamed nine burials of Theban priests now document the name of both Amenemope and Pinudjem ii—as a king and hpa respectively—in braces pendants or bandages (tip 272 and 421). Further from Pinudjem ii onwards the mummy bandages dedicated by the Theban HPAs to the gods (Amun Khonsu Montu . . .) no longer refer to them as their “father” but their “lord/master” which seems to be a more modest tone that could be seen as a sign of the southern ruler’s more restricted power (tip 416).

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