Integration of Foreigners in Egypt

The Relief of Amenhotep ii Shooting Arrows at a Copper Ingot and Related Scenes

in Journal of Egyptian History
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Abstract

The relief of Amenhotep ii shooting arrows at a copper ingot target has often been considered as propaganda of the king’s extraordinary strength and vigour. However, this work proposes that the scene took on additional layers of significance and had different ritual functions such as regenerating the health of the king, and ensuring the eternal victory of Egypt over foreign enemies and the victory of order over chaos. Amenhotep ii was shooting arrows at an “Asiatic” ox-hide ingot because the ingot would symbolize the northern enemies of Egypt. The scene belonged to a group of representations carved during the New Kingdom on temples that showed the general image of the king defeating enemies. Moreover, it was linked to scenes painted in private tombs where goods were brought to the deceased, and to offering scenes carved on the walls of Theban temples. The full sequence of scenes would describe, and ritually promote, the process of integration of the foreign element into the Egyptian sphere.

Integration of Foreigners in Egypt

The Relief of Amenhotep ii Shooting Arrows at a Copper Ingot and Related Scenes

in Journal of Egyptian History

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References

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Figures

  • View in gallery
    The Amenhotep ii stela at Karnak Temple (Luxor Museum, J. 129).
  • View in gallery
    King Ay shooting arrows at an ox-hide ingot (Cairo Museum, je 57438).
  • View in gallery
    The Beith Shean seal showing Ramses ii shooting arrows at a target.
  • View in gallery
    The siege of Dapur at the Ramesseum.
  • View in gallery
    Conquest of a fortress in Amor by Ramses iii (Medinet Habu, first court, south wall).
  • View in gallery
    Ramses iii making offerings to Amun-Re as Thoth keeps record. Treasury of the Medinet Habu temple.
  • View in gallery
    Defeat, orderly arrangement, and offering of ingots. (a) Amenhotep ii stela (Luxor Museum; see Fig. 1); (b) bearers in the tomb of Amenemopet, TT276, after bass, et al., “cape gelidonya: a bronze age shipwreck,” 126; (c) Offerings of Ramses iii to Amun-Ra at Medinet Habu, after the epigraphic survey, the temple proper. medinet habu—volume v, plate 328.

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