The Order of the Kushite Kings According to Sources from the Eastern Desert and Thebes. Or: Shabataka was here first!

in Journal of Egyptian History
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Abstract

The correct order of the first two kings of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty has been the subject of a growing debate since Michael Bányai proposed a revision of the traditional chronological model in 2013. By placing Shabataka1 before Shabaka Bányai challenged the commonly accepted view according to which it was Shabaka who established the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty and secured Kushite control over all of Egypt after having re-conquered the North and disposed of his adversary Bocchoris of the Twenty-Fourth Dynasty. Since then Bányai’s proposal of modifying the sequence of the Kushite kings, thus making Shabataka Bocchoris’ opponent, has received a growing number of supporters who have brought forward additional arguments in favour of it.

The present article introduces new arguments based on a careful analysis of prosopographic, archaeological, and epigraphic data from the Eastern Desert and Thebes—especially relating to the Kushite Nile Level Records at Karnak—which provide the strongest evidence for the sequence “Shabaka—Shabataka” hitherto adduced.

The Order of the Kushite Kings According to Sources from the Eastern Desert and Thebes. Or: Shabataka was here first!

in Journal of Egyptian History

Sections

References

AgutD. and J.C. Moreno García. L’Égypte des pharaons: De Narmer à Dioclétien 3150 av. J.-C. - 284 ap. J.-C. Paris: Éditions Belin2016.

ArnoldD. Temples of the Last Pharaohs. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press1999.

AyadM.F. God’s Wife God’s Servant: The God’s Wife of Amun (c. 740–525 BC). Abingdon/New York: Routledge2009.

AyadM.F. “The Transition from Libyan to Nubian Rule: The Role of the God’s Wife of Amun.” In The Libyan Period in Egypt—Historical and Cultural Studies into the 21st–24th Dynasties: Proceedings of a Conference at Leiden University 25–27 October 2007G.P.F. BroekmanR.J. Demarée and O.E. Kaper eds. 2949. Egyptologische Uitgaven 23. Leiden: Neederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten; Leuven: Peeters2009.

BányaiM. “Ein Vorschlag zur Chronologie der 25. Dynastie in Ägypten.” JEgH 6 (2013): 46129.

BányaiM.with commentaries by A.I. Blöbaum G. Broekman K. Jansen-Winkeln C. Jurman D. Kahn A. Lohwasser and H. Neumann. “Die Reihenfolge der kuschitischen Könige.” JEgH 8 (2015): 115180.

BardK.A.R. Fattovich and A. Manzo“The ancient harbor at Mersa / Wadi Gawasis and how to get there: New evidence of Pharaonic seafearing expeditions in the Red Sea.” In Desert Road Archaeology in Ancient Egypt and BeyondF. Förster and H. Riemer eds. 533556. Africa Praehistorica 27. Köln: Heinrich-Barth-Institut2013.

BeckerathJ. von. Chronologie des pharaonischen Ägypten. MÄS 46. Mainz am Rhein: Philipp von Zabern1997.

BeckerathJ. von. “The Nile Level Records at Karnak and their Importance for the History of the Libyan Period.” JARCE 5 (1966): 4355.

BeckerathJ. von. “Die Nilstandsinschrift vom 3. Jahr Schebitkus am Kai von Karnak.” GM 136 (1993): 79.

BeckerathJ. von. “Ein Torso des Mentemḥēt in München.” ZÄS 87 (1961): 18.

BierbrierM.L. The Late New Kingdom in Egypt (c. 1300–664 B.C.): A Genealogical and Chronological Investigation. Warminster: Aris & Phillips1975.

Biston-MoulinS. and C. Thiers. Le temple de Ptah à Karnak vol. i : Relève épigraphique (Ptah nos 1–191); vol. II : Relève photographique (Ptah. nos 1–191) (Photographies de Jean-François Gout). BiGen 49. Cairo: IFAO2016.

Bongrani FanfoniL. “Un nuovo documento di Scepenupet Ia e Amenardis Ia.” Oriens Antiquus 26 (1987): 6571.

BroekmanG.P.F. “Genealogical considerations regarding the kings of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty in Egypt.” GM 251 (2017): 1320.

BroekmanG.P.F. “The Nile Level Records of the Twenty-second and Twenty-Third Dynasties in Karnak: A Reconsideration of Their Chronological Order.” JEA 88 (2002): 163178.

BroekmanG.P.F. “The order of succession between Shabaka and Shabataka; A different view on the chronology of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty.” GM 245 (2015): 1731.

BroekmanG.P.F. “Some consequences of the reversion of the order Shabaka—Shabataka.” GM 253 (2017): forthcoming.

CouyatJ. and P. Montet. Les inscriptions hiéroglyphiques et hiératiques du Ouâdi Hammâmât. MIFAO 34. Cairo: IFAO1912.

DepuydtL. “The date of Piye’s Egyptian campaign and the chronology of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty.” JEA 79 (1993): 269274.

DepuydtL. “Glosses to Jerome’s Eusebios as a Source for Pharaonic History.” CdÉ 76 (2001): 3047.

DodsonA. Afterglow of Empire: Egypt from the Fall of the New Kingdom to the Saite Renaissance. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press2012.

DodsonA. The Royal Tombs of Ancient Egypt. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Archaeology2016.

FazziniR.A. “Several Objects, and Some Aspects of the Art of the Third Intermediate Period.” In Chief of Seers: Egyptian Studies in Memory of Cyril AldredE. GoringN. Reeves and J. Ruffle eds. 113137. London/New York: Kegan Paul International; Edinburgh: National Museums of Scotland1997.

FrameG. “The Inscription of Sargon II at Tang-i Var.” Orientalia 68 (1999): 3157.

GoyonG. Nouvelles inscriptions ruprestres du Wadi Hammamat. Paris: Imprimerie nationale1957.

GundackerR. “The Chronology of the Third and Fourth Dynasties according to Manetho’s Aegyptiaca.” In Towards a New History of the Egyptian Old Kingdom: Perspectives on the Pyramid AgeP. Der Manuelian and T. Schneider eds. 76199. HES 1. Leiden/Boston: Brill2015.

GundlachR. “Wadi Hammamat.” In LdÄ VI: 10991113.

HikadeT. Das Expeditionswesen im ägyptischen Neuen Reich. Ein Beitrag zu Rohstoffversorgung und Außenhandel. SAGA 21. Heidelberg: Heidelberger Orientverlag2001.

HölscherU. The Excavation of Medinet Habu V: Post-Ramessid Remains. OIP 66. Chicago: The Oriental Institute1954.

HornungE.R. Krauss and D. Warburton eds. Ancient Egyptian Chronology. HdO i/83. Leiden/Boston: Brill2006.

Jansen-WinkelnK. “Beiträge zur Geschichte der Dritten Zwischenzeit.” JEgH 10 (2017): 2342.

Jansen-WinkelnK. “The Chronology of the Third Intermediate Period: Dyns. 22–24.” In Ancient Egyptian ChronologyE. HornungR. Krauss and D. Warburton eds. 234264. HdO i/83. Leiden/Boston: Brill2006.

Jansen-WinkelnK. Inschriften der Spätzeit Teil II: Die 22.–24. Dynastie. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag2007.

Jansen-WinkelnK. Inschriften der Spätzeit Teil III: Die 25. Dynastie. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag2009.

JurmanC. “Legitimisation through Innovative Tradition—Perspectives on the Use of Old Models in Royal and Private Monuments during the Third Intermediate Period.” In Royal versus Divine Authority 7. Symposium zur ägyptischen KönigsideologieF. CoppensJ. Janák and H. Vymazalová eds. 177214. Königtum Staat und Gesellschaft Früher Hochkulturen 44. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag2015.

JurmanC. “Die Namen des Rudjamun in der Kapelle des Osiris Hekadjet. Bemerkungen zu Titulaturen der 3. Zwischenzeit und dem Wadi Gasus Graffito.” GM 210 (2006): 6991.

KahnD. “The Inscription of Sargon II at Tang-i Var and the Chronology of Dynasty 25.” Orientalia 70 (2001): 118.

KhalilS.M. and K.R. McClay. “Structural control on syn-rift sedimentation, northwestern Red Sea margin, Egypt.” Marine and Petroleum Geology 26 (2009): 10181034.

KitchenK.A. The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100–650 BC). 2nd edition. Warminster: Aris & Phillips1986.

KitchenK.A. “The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt: An Overview of Fact and Fiction.” In The Libyan Period in Egypt—Historical and Cultural Studies into the 21st–24th Dynasties: Proceedings of a Conference at Leiden University 25–27 October 2007G.P.F. BroekmanR.J. Demarée and O.E. Kaper eds. 161201. Egyptologische Uitgaven 23. Leiden: Neederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten; Leuven: Peeters2009.

KochC. „Die den Amun mit ihrer Stimme zufriedenstellen“—Gottesgemahlinnen und Musikerinnen im thebanischen Amunstaat von der 22. bis zur 26. Dynastie. Studien zu den Ritualszenen altägyptischer Tempel 27. Dettelbach: J.H. Röll2012.

LauffrayJ. “Abords occidentaux du premier pylône de Karnak: Le dromos, la tribune et les aménagements portuaires.” Kêmi 21 (1971): 77144.

LauffrayJ. “La tribune du quai de Karnak et sa favissa : Compte rendu des fouilles menées en 1971–1972 (2e campagne).” In Karnak V (1970–1972)CFEETK4376. Cairo: Centre Franco-égyptien d’Étude des Temples de Karnak1975.

LeahyT. “The Name of Osiris Written .” SAK 7 (1979): 141153.

LeclantJ. “The Architecture of the Edifice.” In The Edifice of Taharqa by the Sacred Lake of KarnakR.A. ParkerJ. Leclant and J.-C. Goyon eds. 310. Brown Egyptological Studies 8. Providence: Brown University Press1979.

LeclantJ. Recherches sur les monuments thébains de la XXVe dynastie dite éthiopienne. BdÉ 36. Cairo: IFAO1965.

LegrainG. “Les crues du Nil depuis Sheshonq Ier jusqu’à Psametik.” ZÄS 34 (1896): 119121.

LegrainG. †. Les temples de Karnak. Brussels: Vromant & C°1929.

LicitraN. “Gérer les richesses du temple à l’époque koushito-saïte: Les découvertes récentes dans le Trésor de Shabaqo à Karnak.” ÉAO 81 (2016): 5358.

LicitraN.C. Thiers and P. Zignani. “A Major Development Project of the Northern Area of the Amun-Re Precinct at Karnak during the Reign of Shabaqo.” In Thebes in the First Millennium BCE. PischikovaJ. Budka and K. Griffin eds. 549563. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing2014.

LohwasserA. “Vorbemerkung.” In: BányaiM.with commentaries by A.I. Blöbaum G. Broekman K. Jansen-Winkeln C. Jurman D. Kahn A. Lohwasser and H. Neumann. “Die Reihenfolge der kuschitischen Könige.” JEgH 8 (2015): 115116.

MacadamM.F.L. The Temples of Kawa. I: The Inscriptions. London: Oxford University Press1949.

MalinineM. “Un jugement rendu à Thèbes sous la XXVe dynastie (Pap. Louvre E. 3228c).” RdÉ 6 (1951): 157178.

MarietteA. Karnak: Étude topographique et archéologique. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs1875.

MassonA. “Offering Magazines on the Southern Bank of the Sacred Lake in Karnak: The Oriental Complex of the Twenty-Fifth—Twenty-Sixth Dynasty.” In Thebes in the First Millennium BCE. PischikovaJ. Budka and K. Griffin eds. 578602. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing2014.

MeffreR. “Political Changes in Thebes during the Late Libyan Period.” In “Prayer and Power.” Proceedings of the Conference on the God’s Wives of Amun in Egypt during the First Millennium BCM. BeckerA.I. Blöbaum and A. Lohwasser eds. 4760. ÄAT 84. Münster: Ugarit-Verlag2016.

MorkotR.G. The Black Pharaohs: Egypt’s Nubian Rulers. London: The Rubicon Press2000.

MorkotR.G. “The Late Libyan and Kushite God’s Wives: Historical and Art-historical Questions.” In “Prayer and Power.” Proceedings of the Conference on the God’s Wives of Amun in Egypt during the First Millennium BCM. BeckerA.I. Blöbaum and A. Lohwasser eds. 107119. ÄAT 84. Münster: Ugarit-Verlag2016.

MosshammerA.A. ed. Georgii Syncelli Ecloga Chronographica. Bibliotheca Scriptorum Graecorum et Romanorum Teubneriana. Leipzig: B.G. Teubner1984.

MurnaneW.J. Ancient Egyptian Coregencies. SAOC 40. Chicago: The Oriental Institute1977.

PayraudeauF. “Retour sur la succession Shabaqo—Shabataqo.” NeHeT 1 (2014): 115127. Accessed 26 June 2017. http://sfe-egyptologie.website/index.php/publications/la-revue-nehet.

PerduO. “L’avertissement d’Aménirdis Ière sur sa statue Caire JE 3420 (= CG 565).” RdÉ 47 (1996): 4366.

PerduO. “De Stéphinatès à Néchao ou les débuts de la XXVe dynastie.” CRAIBL 2002fasc. 4 (2002): 12151243.

PopeJ. “Shepenwepet II and the Kingdom of Kush: Implications of a Recent Study.” In Joyful in Thebes: Egyptological Studies in Honor of Betsy M. BryanR. Jasnow and K.M. Cooney eds. 357364. Material and Visual Culture of Ancient Egypt 1. Atlanta, GA: Lockwood Press2015.

RedfordD.B. “An Interim Report on the Second Season of Work at the Temple of Osiris, Ruler of Eternity.” JEA 59 (1973): 1630.

RedfordD.B. “A Note on the Chronology of Dynasty 25 and the Inscription of Sargon II at Tang-i Var.” Orientalia 68 (1999): 5860.

RitnerR.K. The Libyan Anarchy: Inscriptions from Egypt’s Third Intermediate Period. WA 21. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature2009.

RitnerR.K. “Libyan vs. Nubian as the Ideal Egyptian.” In Egypt and Beyond: Essays Presented to Leonard H. Lesko upon his Retirement from the Wilbour Chair of Egyptology at Brown University June 2005S.E. Thompson and P. Der Manuelian eds. 305314. Providence: Department of Egyptology and Ancient Western Asian Studies, Brown University2008.

TrauneckerC. “Les éléments historiques livrés par les inscriptions nilométriques.” In J. Lauffray “La tribune du quai de Karnak et sa favissa : Compte rendu des fouilles menées en 1971–1972 (2e campagne)”. In Karnak V (1970–1972)CFEETK5863. Cairo: Centre Franco-égyptien d’Étude des Temples de Karnak1975.

Van SiclenIII C. “A kiosk (?) of Shabako at Luxor temple.” Varia Aegyptiaca 6/3 (1990): 177183.

VikentievV. “Les trois inscriptions concernant la mine de plomb d’Oum Huetat.” ASAÉ 54 (1957): 179189.

WaddellW.G. ed. Manetho. LCL 350. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press1940.

WallraffM. ed. with Umberto Roberto and for the Oriental Sources Karl Pinggéra translated by William Adler. Iulius Africanus Chronographiae: The Extant Fragments. Die Griechischen Christlichen Schriftsteller der ersten Jahrhunderte (GCS) Neue Folge 15. Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter2007.

Figures

  • View in gallery
    Overview of the Nile Level Records on the façade of the quay tribune at Karnak from the Twenty-second to the early Twenty-Fifth Dynasty.
  • View in gallery
    Middle section of nlr nos. 33 and 30. Detail of Chicago Oriental Institute photo no. 8744 B with captions added by author.
  • View in gallery
    Detail of nlr no. 30 showing adaptation of size and spacing of hieroglyphs in relation to nlr no. 33 above. Detail of Chicago Oriental Institute photo no. 8744 B with lines added by author.
  • View in gallery
    Detail of nlr no. 30 showing a part of the word HꜤpj. Note how the upper edge of the twined wick <ḥ> seems to cut into the depression belonging to the <Ꜥ> of nlr no. 33 above. Detail of Chicago Oriental Institute photo no. 8744 B.

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 89 89 34
Full Text Views 130 130 89
PDF Downloads 9 9 5
EPUB Downloads 4 4 0