The Order of the Kushite Kings According to Sources from the Eastern Desert and Thebes. Or: Shabataka was here first!

in Journal of Egyptian History
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Abstract

The correct order of the first two kings of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty has been the subject of a growing debate since Michael Bányai proposed a revision of the traditional chronological model in 2013. By placing Shabataka1 before Shabaka Bányai challenged the commonly accepted view according to which it was Shabaka who established the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty and secured Kushite control over all of Egypt after having re-conquered the North and disposed of his adversary Bocchoris of the Twenty-Fourth Dynasty. Since then Bányai’s proposal of modifying the sequence of the Kushite kings, thus making Shabataka Bocchoris’ opponent, has received a growing number of supporters who have brought forward additional arguments in favour of it.

The present article introduces new arguments based on a careful analysis of prosopographic, archaeological, and epigraphic data from the Eastern Desert and Thebes—especially relating to the Kushite Nile Level Records at Karnak—which provide the strongest evidence for the sequence “Shabaka—Shabataka” hitherto adduced.

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Figures
  • View in gallery
    Overview of the Nile Level Records on the façade of the quay tribune at Karnak from the Twenty-second to the early Twenty-Fifth Dynasty.
  • View in gallery
    Middle section of nlr nos. 33 and 30. Detail of Chicago Oriental Institute photo no. 8744 B with captions added by author.
  • View in gallery
    Detail of nlr no. 30 showing adaptation of size and spacing of hieroglyphs in relation to nlr no. 33 above. Detail of Chicago Oriental Institute photo no. 8744 B with lines added by author.
  • View in gallery
    Detail of nlr no. 30 showing a part of the word HꜤpj. Note how the upper edge of the twined wick <ḥ> seems to cut into the depression belonging to the <Ꜥ> of nlr no. 33 above. Detail of Chicago Oriental Institute photo no. 8744 B.
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