The Year 16 graffito of Akhenaten in Dayr Abū Ḥinnis. A Contribution to the Study of the Later Years of Nefertiti

in Journal of Egyptian History
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A building inscription in a limestone quarry at Dayr Abū Ḥinnis dated to Year 16 of Akhenaten proves that Akhenaten and Nefertiti were still the royal couple near the end of his reign. It is the highest known date of Queen Nefertiti and the latest dated inscription which can be certainly attributed to Akhenaten himself. The second part of the article evaluates current theories concerning the final years of Nefertiti and the successors of Akhenaten in the light of the new text.

The Year 16 graffito of Akhenaten in Dayr Abū Ḥinnis. A Contribution to the Study of the Later Years of Nefertiti

in Journal of Egyptian History

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References

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2

Gasse“Rapport préliminaire d’une mission épigraphique à Deir Abou Hennes”; Willems and Demarée “A Visitor’s Graffito in Dayr Abu Hinnis” 224.

10

Samson“Royal Names in Amarna History” 37–38 and “Nefertiti’s Regality” 94; Perepelkin The Secret of the Gold Coffin 120; Reeves “A Further Occurrence of Nefertiti as ḥmt nsw ꜤꜢt” 61–65.

14

Lopez“Inscriptions hiératiques sur les talatât provenant des temples d’Akhenaton à Karnak” 254.

18

GaboldeD’Akhenaton à Toutânkhamon110–18.

19

PM IV 210 217; DaviesThe Rock Tombs of El Amarna. Part IV1–6.

20

DaviesThe Rock Tombs of El Amarna. Part IV2.

22

Habachi“Unknown or Little-known Monuments of Tutankhamun and of his Viziers” 39.

23

Schulman“The Berlin “Trauerrelief” (No. 12411) and Some Officials of Tut’ankhamn and Ay” 67–68.

25

Mallinson“Investigation of the Small Aten Temple” 138. A wine docket dating from Year 13 and a ring bezel of Ankhkheperure provide a terminus ante quem for the construction of the final phase. Mallinson “Investigation of the Small Aten Temple” 126.

27

Hornung Krauss and WarburtonAncient Egyptian Chronology206.

29

Seele“King Ay and the Close of the Amarna Age” 172.

30

Roeder“Thronfolger und König Smench-ka-Rê (Dynastie XVIII)” 43.

31

HayesThe Scepter of Egypt. Part 2296.

32

HayesThe Scepter of Egypt. Part 2296.

33

RedfordHistory and Chronology175.

35

SchlöglNofretete. Die Wahrheit über die schöne Königin90.

38

Helck“Amarna-Probleme” 202.

42

Woolley“Excavations at Tell el-Amarna” 81–82.

44

AldredAkhenaten. King of Egypt288.

48

Samson“The Amarna Collection at University College London” 231–37.

50

Harris“Nefertiti Rediviva” 5.

51

Samson“Nefertiti’s Regality” 88–89.

52

Freedet al. Farao’s van de Zon. Achnaton Nefertiti Toetanchamon88–89.

56

Samson“Nefertiti’s Regality” 95.

57

RedfordAkhenaten. The Heretic King206.

58

Van Dijk“De restauratiestèle van Toetanchamon” 235–36.

59

Loeben“Eine Bestattung der großen königlichen Gemachlin Nofretete in Amarna? Die Totenfigur der Nofretete” 99–107. However the two parts of the shabti described by Loeben originally belong to two different statuettes. It has been argued that these were probably put into the tomb as votive offerings. They appear to have been made at the beginning of the reign of Akhenaten so the inscriptions cannot be used to provide information about the last years of Nefertiti. (See Reeves Akhenaten. Egypt’s False Prophet 170.)

60

Allen“The Amarna Succession” 18.

61

KraussDas Ende der Amarnazeit43–53; Gabolde D’Akhenaton à Toutânkhamon 147–85.

63

Allen“Two Altered Inscriptions of the Late Amarna Period” 117–18 and “The Amarna Succession” 12.

64

Allen“The Amarna Succession” 12.

67

KempThe City of Akhenaten and Nefertiti15.

69

Bouriant“Notes de voyages” 70.

70

ScheilLe tombeau de Pâri588.

72

PetrieA History of Egypt. Vol. II227.

81

Restoration proposed by Tawfik: Tawfik“Aton Studies 3: Back again to Nefer-nefru-Aton” 167. However this restoration has been criticized see Krauss Das Ende der Amarnazeit 88 n. 7.

84

GaboldeD’Akhenaton à Toutânkhamon153–57; Hoffmeier and van Dijk “New Light on the Amarna Period from North Sinai” 201–02 pl. IVb.

86

Dodson“Amarna Sunset: the late-Amarna succession revisited” 31–32.

87

Von BeckerathHandbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen23 26.

90

RedfordHistory and Chronology170.

91

DodsonAmarna Sunset39–40.

94

Elliot SmithThe Royal Mummies51–56; Harrison “An Anatomical Examination of the Pharaonic Remains Purported to Be Akhenaten”; Leclant and Minault-Gout “Fouilles et travaux en Egypte et au Soudan 1997–1998. Première partie” 387; Filer “The kv 55 Body: The Facts”; Ashrafian “Familial epilepsy in the pharaohs of ancient Egypt’s eighteenth dynasty” 25–26.

95

Allen“The Amarna Succession” 19; Eaton-Krauss “Mummies (and Daddies)” 34.

99

Gabolde“Under a Deep Blue Starry Sky” 109–20.

100

GaboldeD’Akhenaton à Toutânkhamon262–63.

102

Dodson“Amarna Sunset: the late-Amarna succession revisited” 33.

105

DaviesThe Rock Tombs of El Amarna. Part II44; Harris “Neferneferuaten Regnans” 18.

108

DaviesThe Rock Tombs of El Amarna. Part II44.

109

Newberry“Akhenaten’s Eldest Son-in-Law ‘Ankhkheprure’” 6.

110

Dodson“Amarna Sunset: the late-Amarna succession revisited” 31.

111

Dodson“Amarna Sunset: the late-Amarna succession revisited” 31.

112

DodsonAmarna Sunset32.

113

Dodson“Amarna Sunset: the late-Amarna succession revisited” 31.

115

Newberry“Akhenaten’s Eldest Son-in-Law ‘Ankhkheprure’” 8–9; Löhr “Ahanjati in Memphis” 157–58.

116

Borchardt“Aus der Arbeit an der Funden von Tell el-Amarna: vorläufiger Bericht” 10.

117

Allen“The Amarna Succession” 10.

119

Malek“The ‘coregency relief’ of Akhenaten and Smenkhkare from Memphis” 558–59.

120

Carter and MaceThe Tomb of Tut-Ankh-Amun. Vol. III146.

123

MurnaneAncient Egyptian Coregencies213–15.

128

GaboldeD’Akhenaton à Toutânkhamon287.

132

KempThe City of Akhenaten and Nefertiti137.

134

Mallinson“Excavation and Survey in the Central City” 188.

137

Boyce“Notes on the manufacture and use of faience rings at Amarna” 166.

138

Mallinson“Investigation of the Small Aten Temple” 126. I would like to thank Dr. Barry Kemp for pointing out this reference.

139

Martin“The Coregency Stela University College London 410” 354.

142

RedfordHistory and Chronology176.

143

PetrieTell El Amarna. 42. More recently Allen “The Amarna Succession” 12.

145

Van Walsem“The Dutch expedition to Saqqara 1999–2000” 17; Raven et al. The Memphite Tomb of Horemheb Commander in Chief of Tutankhamun V 102–03.

147

As suggested by Dodson“Amarna Sunset: the late-Amarna succession revisited” 32.

148

Gabolde“Das Ende der Amarna Zeit” 28.

151

Allen“The Amarna Succession” 12.

153

Samson“Royal Inscriptions from Amarna” 244–45.

154

Allen“The Amarna Succession” 9.

159

Von Falck“Zwischen Echnaton und Tutanchamun” 90–91.

160

Also suggested by Reeves“An Amarna-period Ostracon from the Valley of the Kings” 501–02.

165

SamsonAmarna. City of Akhenaten and Nefertiti103–06; Harris “Neferneferuaten Regnans.”

166

Marc Gabolde personal communication 2012.

168

The stela is published in ReevesAkhenaten. Egypt’s False Prophet169.

169

ReevesAkhenaten. Egypt’s False Prophet169.

172

ReevesAkhenaten. Egypt’s False Prophet164.

174

Hoffmeier and Abd El-Maksoud“A New Military Site on ‘The Ways of Horus’: Tell el-Borg 1999–2001” 180–81.

175

Hoffmeier“Recent Excavations on the ‘Ways of Horus’: The 2005 and 2006 Seasons at Tell El-Borg” 276 fig. 23; Hoffmeier and van Dijk “New Light on the Amarna Period from North Sinai” 201.

176

Hoffmeier and Abd El-Maksoud“A New Military Site on ‘The Ways of Horus’: Tell el-Borg 1999–2001” 181.

177

Ertman and Hoffmeier“A new fragmentary relief of King Ankhkheperure from Tell el-Borg (Sinai)?” 301.

178

DodsonAmarna Sunset45–46.

179

Hoffmeier and van Dijk“New Light on the Amarna Period from North Sinai” 201–02.

181

Barry Kemp 2013personal communication.

Figures

  • View in gallery
    Map of the area. The location of Quarry 320 is marked with an arrow.

    © dayr al-barshā project
  • View in gallery
    Quarry 320 at the Wadi Dayr Abu Hinnis.

    photo by author
  • View in gallery
    Pillar with the inscription.

    (photo by author)
  • View in gallery
    Original photo of part of the inscription and processed image of same part.

    (photos by author)
  • View in gallery
    Facsimile of the inscription.

    (drawing by author)
  • View in gallery
    Transcription of the inscription.
  • View in gallery
    Stamped mud brick Amarna

    drawing by author, based on dodson, amarna sunset, 32, fig. 25

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