The Year 16 graffito of Akhenaten in Dayr Abū Ḥinnis. A Contribution to the Study of the Later Years of Nefertiti

In: Journal of Egyptian History
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  • 1 Dayr al-Barshā Project, Near Eastern Studies, KU Leuven, Belgium

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A building inscription in a limestone quarry at Dayr Abū Ḥinnis dated to Year 16 of Akhenaten proves that Akhenaten and Nefertiti were still the royal couple near the end of his reign. It is the highest known date of Queen Nefertiti and the latest dated inscription which can be certainly attributed to Akhenaten himself. The second part of the article evaluates current theories concerning the final years of Nefertiti and the successors of Akhenaten in the light of the new text.

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  • 2

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  • 10

    Samson, “Royal Names in Amarna History,” 37–38 and “Nefertiti’s Regality,” 94; Perepelkin, The Secret of the Gold Coffin, 120; Reeves, “A Further Occurrence of Nefertiti as ḥmt nsw ꜤꜢt,” 61–65.

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  • 14

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  • 18

    Gabolde, D’Akhenaton à Toutânkhamon, 110–18.

  • 19

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  • 20

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  • 22

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  • 23

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  • 25

    Mallinson, “Investigation of the Small Aten Temple,” 138. A wine docket dating from Year 13 and a ring bezel of Ankhkheperure provide a terminus ante quem for the construction of the final phase. Mallinson, “Investigation of the Small Aten Temple,” 126.

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  • 27

    Hornung, Krauss, and Warburton, Ancient Egyptian Chronology, 206.

  • 29

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  • 30

    Roeder, “Thronfolger und König Smench-ka-Rê (Dynastie XVIII),” 43.

  • 31

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  • 32

    Hayes, The Scepter of Egypt. Part 2, 296.

  • 33

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  • 35

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  • 38

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  • 42

    Woolley, “Excavations at Tell el-Amarna,” 81–82.

  • 44

    Aldred, Akhenaten. King of Egypt, 288.

  • 48

    Samson, “The Amarna Collection at University College, London,” 231–37.

  • 50

    Harris, “Nefertiti Rediviva,” 5.

  • 51

    Samson, “Nefertiti’s Regality,” 88–89.

  • 52

    Freed, et al., Farao’s van de Zon. Achnaton, Nefertiti, Toetanchamon, 88–89.

  • 56

    Samson, “Nefertiti’s Regality,” 95.

  • 57

    Redford, Akhenaten. The Heretic King, 206.

  • 58

    Van Dijk, “De restauratiestèle van Toetanchamon,” 235–36.

  • 59

    Loeben, “Eine Bestattung der großen königlichen Gemachlin Nofretete in Amarna? Die Totenfigur der Nofretete,” 99–107. However, the two parts of the shabti described by Loeben originally belong to two different statuettes. It has been argued that these were probably put into the tomb as votive offerings. They appear to have been made at the beginning of the reign of Akhenaten, so the inscriptions cannot be used to provide information about the last years of Nefertiti. (See Reeves, Akhenaten. Egypt’s False Prophet, 170.)

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  • 60

    Allen, “The Amarna Succession,” 18.

  • 61

    Krauss, Das Ende der Amarnazeit, 43–53; Gabolde, D’Akhenaton à Toutânkhamon, 147–85.

  • 63

    Allen, “Two Altered Inscriptions of the Late Amarna Period,” 117–18 and “The Amarna Succession,” 12.

  • 64

    Allen, “The Amarna Succession,” 12.

  • 67

    Kemp, The City of Akhenaten and Nefertiti, 15.

  • 69

    Bouriant, “Notes de voyages,” 70.

  • 70

    Scheil, Le tombeau de Pâri, 588.

  • 72

    Petrie, A History of Egypt. Vol. II, 227.

  • 81

    Restoration proposed by Tawfik: Tawfik, “Aton Studies 3: Back again to Nefer-nefru-Aton,” 167. However, this restoration has been criticized, see Krauss, Das Ende der Amarnazeit, 88, n. 7.

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  • 84

    Gabolde, D’Akhenaton à Toutânkhamon, 153–57; Hoffmeier and van Dijk, “New Light on the Amarna Period from North Sinai,” 201–02, pl. IVb.

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  • 86

    Dodson, “Amarna Sunset: the late-Amarna succession revisited,” 31–32.

  • 87

    Von Beckerath, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen, 23, 26.

  • 90

    Redford, History and Chronology, 170.

  • 91

    Dodson, Amarna Sunset, 39–40.

  • 94

    Elliot Smith, The Royal Mummies, 51–56; Harrison, “An Anatomical Examination of the Pharaonic Remains Purported to Be Akhenaten”; Leclant and Minault-Gout, “Fouilles et travaux en Egypte et au Soudan, 1997–1998. Première partie,” 387; Filer, “The kv 55 Body: The Facts”; Ashrafian, “Familial epilepsy in the pharaohs of ancient Egypt’s eighteenth dynasty,” 25–26.

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  • 95

    Allen, “The Amarna Succession,” 19; Eaton-Krauss, “Mummies (and Daddies),” 34.

  • 99

    Gabolde, “Under a Deep Blue Starry Sky,” 109–20.

  • 100

    Gabolde, D’Akhenaton à Toutânkhamon, 262–63.

  • 102

    Dodson, “Amarna Sunset: the late-Amarna succession revisited,” 33.

  • 105

    Davies, The Rock Tombs of El Amarna. Part II, 44; Harris, “Neferneferuaten Regnans,” 18.

  • 108

    Davies, The Rock Tombs of El Amarna. Part II, 44.

  • 109

    Newberry, “Akhenaten’s Eldest Son-in-Law ‘Ankhkheprure’,” 6.

  • 110

    Dodson, “Amarna Sunset: the late-Amarna succession revisited,” 31.

  • 111

    Dodson, “Amarna Sunset: the late-Amarna succession revisited,” 31.

  • 112

    Dodson, Amarna Sunset, 32.

  • 113

    Dodson, “Amarna Sunset: the late-Amarna succession revisited,” 31.

  • 115

    Newberry, “Akhenaten’s Eldest Son-in-Law ‘Ankhkheprure’,” 8–9; Löhr, “Ahanjati in Memphis,” 157–58.

  • 116

    Borchardt, “Aus der Arbeit an der Funden von Tell el-Amarna: vorläufiger Bericht,” 10.

  • 117

    Allen, “The Amarna Succession,” 10.

  • 119

    Malek, “The ‘coregency relief’ of Akhenaten and Smenkhkare from Memphis,” 558–59.

  • 120

    Carter and Mace, The Tomb of Tut-Ankh-Amun. Vol. III, 146.

  • 123

    Murnane, Ancient Egyptian Coregencies, 213–15.

  • 128

    Gabolde, D’Akhenaton à Toutânkhamon, 287.

  • 132

    Kemp, The City of Akhenaten and Nefertiti, 137.

  • 134

    Mallinson, “Excavation and Survey in the Central City,” 188.

  • 137

    Boyce, “Notes on the manufacture and use of faience rings at Amarna,” 166.

  • 138

    Mallinson, “Investigation of the Small Aten Temple,” 126. I would like to thank Dr. Barry Kemp for pointing out this reference.

  • 139

    Martin, “The Coregency Stela University College London 410,” 354.

  • 142

    Redford, History and Chronology, 176.

  • 143

    Petrie, Tell El Amarna. 42. More recently Allen, “The Amarna Succession,” 12.

  • 145

    Van Walsem, “The Dutch expedition to Saqqara, 1999–2000,” 17; Raven, et al., The Memphite Tomb of Horemheb, Commander in Chief of Tutankhamun V, 102–03.

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  • 147

    As suggested by Dodson, “Amarna Sunset: the late-Amarna succession revisited,” 32.

  • 148

    Gabolde, “Das Ende der Amarna Zeit,” 28.

  • 151

    Allen, “The Amarna Succession,” 12.

  • 153

    Samson, “Royal Inscriptions from Amarna,” 244–45.

  • 154

    Allen, “The Amarna Succession,” 9.

  • 159

    Von Falck, “Zwischen Echnaton und Tutanchamun,” 90–91.

  • 160

    Also suggested by Reeves, “An Amarna-period Ostracon from the Valley of the Kings,” 501–02.

  • 165

    Samson, Amarna. City of Akhenaten and Nefertiti, 103–06; Harris, “Neferneferuaten Regnans.”

  • 166

    Marc Gabolde, personal communication 2012.

  • 168

    The stela is published in Reeves, Akhenaten. Egypt’s False Prophet, 169.

  • 169

    Reeves, Akhenaten. Egypt’s False Prophet, 169.

  • 172

    Reeves, Akhenaten. Egypt’s False Prophet, 164.

  • 174

    Hoffmeier and Abd El-Maksoud, “A New Military Site on ‘The Ways of Horus’: Tell el-Borg 1999–2001,” 180–81.

  • 175

    Hoffmeier, “Recent Excavations on the ‘Ways of Horus’: The 2005 and 2006 Seasons at Tell El-Borg,” 276, fig. 23; Hoffmeier and van Dijk, “New Light on the Amarna Period from North Sinai,” 201.

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  • 176

    Hoffmeier and Abd El-Maksoud, “A New Military Site on ‘The Ways of Horus’: Tell el-Borg 1999–2001,” 181.

  • 177

    Ertman and Hoffmeier, “A new fragmentary relief of King Ankhkheperure from Tell el-Borg (Sinai)?,” 301.

  • 178

    Dodson, Amarna Sunset, 45–46.

  • 179

    Hoffmeier and van Dijk, “New Light on the Amarna Period from North Sinai,” 201–02.

  • 181

    Barry Kemp 2013, personal communication.

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