A succinct but comprehensive survey is given on what we know on women in ancient Sumer, Babylonia, and Assyria (with an occasional remark on Syria), covering the time span of roughly 3000-300 B.C. Thanks to the rich archival material we are well informed about her social position, in particular the status of a married or widowed wife. Marriage is the most important topic in this article. Attention is also paid to women at work and in religion. Differences in region and time are pointed out.