Financial Development of the Waqfs in Konya and the Agricultural Economy in the Central Anatolia (Late Sixteenth-Early Seventeenth Centuries)

in Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient
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Abstract

This study examines the financial history of three waqfs (those of Mevlânâ Celâleddîn-i Rûmî, Sadreddîn-i Konevî, and Selîm II) in Konya through their account records covering the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. These waqfs (charitable foundations) had large agricultural holdings, and their financial developments consequently reflect the local agricultural conditions in central Anatolia. This analysis of the waqf account books deals with the short-term financial difficulties resulting from harvest failures and increasing grain prices. The widespread Celâlî rebellions seem to have caused agricultural crisis and the financial decline of waqfs in the early seventeenth century.

Financial Development of the Waqfs in Konya and the Agricultural Economy in the Central Anatolia (Late Sixteenth-Early Seventeenth Centuries)

in Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient

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References

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3)

Suraiya Faroqhi“Vakıf Administration in Sixteenth Century Konya: The Zaviye of Sadreddin-i Konevi,” JESHO 17/2 (1974): 145-72; idem “Seyyid Gazi Revisited: The Foundation as Seen Through Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century Documents” Turcica 13 (1981): 90-121; idem “A Great Foundation in Difficulties: Or Some Evidence on Economic Contraction in the Ottoman Empire of the Mid-Seventeenth Century” Revue d’Histoire Magrebine 47-8 (1987): 109-21; idem “Agricultural Crisis and the Art of Flute-Playing: The Wordly Affairs of the Mevlevi Dervishes (1595-1652)” Turcica 20 (1988): 43-69. See also Stéphane Yerasimos “Le Waqf du Defterdar Ebu’l Fazl Efendi et ses Bénéficiaires” Turcica 33 (2001): 7-33; and Kayhan Orbay Economic Development of the Imperial Waqfs: A Study in the Institutional and Local Economic History in the Transformation Period (PhD dissertation University of Vienna 2007); idem “16. ve 17. Yüzyıllarda Bursa Ekonomisi: Sultan Çelebi Mehmed Yeşil İmaret’inin Mali Tarihi (1553-1650)” A. Ü. Osmanlı Tarihi Araştırma ve Uygulama Merkezi (OTAM) Dergisi 22 (2007): 125-58; idem “Bursa’da Sultan II. Murad Vakfı’nıın Mali Tarihi (1608-1641)” I.Ü. İktisat Fakültesi Mecmuası 61/2 (2011): 239-322; idem “Gazi Süleyman Paşa Vakfı’nın Mali Tarihi ve 17. Yüzyılda Trakya Tarımsal Ekonomisi” A.Ü. Tarih Araştırmaları Dergisi 30/49 (2011): 145-181.

7)

Amnon Cohen and Bernard LewisPopulation and Revenue in the Towns of Palestine in the Sixteenth Century (Princeton: Princeton University Press1978); Muhammad Adnan Bakhit The Ottoman Province of Damascus in the Sixteenth Century (Librairie du Liban: Beirut 1982); E. Toledano “The Sancaq of Jerusalem in the Sixteenth Century: Aspects of Topography and Population” Archivum Ottomanicum 9 (1984): 279-319; Margaret L. Venzke “The Question of Declining Cereals’ Production in the Sixteenth Century: A Sounding on the Problem-Solving Capacity of the Ottoman Cadastres” Journal of Turkish Studies 8 (1984): 251-64; Mehmet Ali Ünal XVI. Yüzyılda Harput Sancağı (1518-1566) (Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu 1989).

9)

Ömer Lütfi Barkan“The Price Revolution of the Sixteenth Century: A Turning Point in the Economic History of the Near East,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 6 (1975): 3-28; Holm Sundhaussen “Die Preisrevolution im Osmanischen Reich wahrend der zweiten Halfte des 16. Jahrhunderts” Südost-Forschungen (1983): 42 169-81; Haim Gerber “The Monetary System of the Ottoman Empire” JESHO 25/3 (1982): 308-24; Şevket Pamuk “The Price Revolution in the Ottoman Empire Reconsidered” International Journal of Middle East Studies 33 (2001): 69-89; idem “Prices in the Ottoman Empire 1469-1914” International Journal of Middle East Studies 36 (2004): 451-68.

10)

Şevket Pamukİstanbul ve Diğer Kentlerde 500 Yıllık Fiyatlar ve Ücretler 1469-1998 (Ankara: Devlet İstatistik Enstitüsü2000).

14)

Fahri DalsarBursa’da İpekçilik (Istanbul: Sermet Matbaası1960); Benjamin Braude “International Competition and Domestic Cloth in the Ottoman Empire 1500-1650: A Study in Undevelopment” Review (Fernand Braudel Center) 2/3 (1979): 437-51; idem “The Rise and Fall of Salonica Woollens 1500-1650: Technology Transfer and Western Competition” in Jews Christians and Muslims in the Mediterranean World after 1492 ed. Alisa Meyuhas Ginio (London: Frank Cass 2002): 216-36; Murat Çizakça “A Short History of the Bursa Silk Industry (1500-1900)” JESHO 23/1-2 (1980): 142-52; Gerber Economy and Society in an Ottoman City; Abraham Marcus The Middle East on the Eve of Modernity (New York: Columbia University Press 1989); Daniel Goffman Izmir and the Levantine World 1550-1650 (Seattle: University of Washington Press 1990); Akdağ Türkiyenin İktisadi ve İçtimai Tarihi vol. 2; Özer Ergenç XVI. Yüzyılın Sonlarında Bursa (Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu 2006); Özgür Kolçak “Selanik Yünlü Dokumacılığının Tarihsel Gelişimi (1500-1620): Yeni Bulgular Işığında Genel Bir Değerlendirme” Osmanlı Araştırmaları 31 (2008): 93-126.

17)

Faroqhi“Vakıf Administration” 166.

19)

Faroqhi“Vakıf Administration” 166. Between 979/1571 and 1005-6/1596-7 there is only one account book available that for the year 983/1575. It covers a period of about six months. It is not a main account book but a synoptic (icmal) account book. Though the book closed the accounting period with a small budget deficit it does not tell us much about the financial situation because it does not cover a full year. We can however see that the waqf operated the kitchen and paid the salaries. Available prices do not reveal any harvest crisis in this year.

20)

Ramzi Touchan et al.“Reconstructions of Spring/Summer Precipitation for the Eastern Mediterranean from Tree-Ring Widths and Its Connection to Large-Scale Atmospheric Circulation,” Climate Dynamics 25 (2005): 86.

22)

MM 5074MM 4867 MM 4899.

28)

Touchan et al.“Reconstructions of Spring/Summer Precipitation” 88; Ramzi Touchan et al. “Standardized Precipitation Index Reconstructed from Turkish Tree-Ring Widths” Climatic Change 72 (2005): 347. The warmest winter in the Mediterranean temperature reconstruction for the last 500 years was that of the year 1606-7; see Jürg Luterbacher et al. “Mediterranean Climate Variability over the Last Centuries: A Review” in Mediterranean Climate Variability ed. P. Lionello et al. (Amsterdam: Elsevier 2006): 84. “The driest reconstructed winter over the Mediterranean from AD 1500-1900 was 1609 . . . The largest negative precipitation anomalies is found over Portugal western Greece and western Turkey” (J. Luterbacher and E. Xoplaki “500-year Winter Temperature and Precipitation Variability over the Mediteranean Area and its Connection to the Large-Scale Atmospheric Circulation” in Mediterranean Climate: Variability and Trends ed. Hans-Jurgen Bolle (Berlin: Springer 2003): 142.

32)

Susan L. Swan“Mexico in the Little Ice Age,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 11/4 (1981): 633-48; William S. Atwell “Some Observations on the ‘Seventeenth-Century Crisis’ in China and Japan” The Journal of Asian Studies 45/2 (1986): 223-44; idem “Ming Observers of the Ming Decline: Some Chinese Views on the ‘Seventeenth-Century Crisis’ in Comparative Perspective” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 57/2 (1988): 177-97.

34)

Matthew D. Jones et al.“A High-Resolution Late Holocene Lake Isotope Record from Turkey and Links to North Atlantic and Monsoon Climate,” Geology 34/5 (2006): 361-4; Luterbacher et al. “Mediterranean Climate Variability.”

35)

Touchan et al.“Reconstructions of Spring/Summer Precipitation”; Touchan et al., “Standardized Precipitation Index”; Luterbacher et al., “Mediterranean Climate Variability.” See also Ramzi Touchan et al., “May-June Precipitation Reconstruction of Southwestern Anatolia, Turkey During the Last 900 Years From Tree Rings,” Quaternary Research 68 (2007): 196-202.

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