“Western Gods Meet in the East”: Shapes and Contexts of the Muslim-Jesuit Dialogue in Early Modern China

in Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Abstract

This essay is concerned with the possibilities and limitations of the Jesuit-Islamic dialogue in China in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. It presents and discusses evidence for the interest of Chinese Muslims and Jesuits in each other almost from the outset, immediately after Matteo Ricci’s arrival in China. Muslims read Jesuit material and even incorporated it in their own works. Chinese Muslims were not, however, interested in Jesuit doctrines because of a shared monotheist faith: Chinese Muslims clearly saw Christianity not as a sister faith but as a Western one, and that was the main reason for their interest. With regard to the tendency to compare Jesuits and Chinese Muslims as two rivals competing for success in the Chinese world of ideas, the Chinese Muslim scholars should be considered not as rivals of the Jesuits but primarily as Chinese scholars engaging Jesuit knowledge and using it selectively for their own purposes.

“Western Gods Meet in the East”: Shapes and Contexts of the Muslim-Jesuit Dialogue in Early Modern China

in Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient

Sections

References

AlenioGiulio Zhifang waiji 1936 Shanghai Shangwu yinshuguan

Ben-Dor BeniteZvi The Dao of Muhammad: A Cultural History of Muslims in Late Imperial China 2005 Cambridge Harvard University Asia Center

Ben-Dor BeniteZvi SchneewindSarah The Marrano Emperor: The Mysterious Bond between Zhu Yuanzhang and the Chinese Muslims Long Live the Emperor! Uses of the Ming Founder Across Six Centuries of East Asian History 2008 Minneapolis Society for Ming Studies 275 308

BrockeyLiam Matthew Journey to the East: The Jesuit Mission to China 1579-1724 2007 Cambridge Belknap Press

BrookTimothy ÜçerlerM.AntoniJ. “Europaelogy: on the Difficulty of Assembling a Knowledge of Europe in China,” Christianity and Cultures: Japan & China in Comparison 1543-1644 2009 Roma Institutum historicum Societatis Iesu 269 293

Van DalenBenno Dold-SamploniusYvonne Islamic and Chinese Astronomy under the Mongols: A Little-Known Case of Transmission From China to Paris: 2000 Years Transmission of Mathematical Ideas 2002 Stuttgart Steiner 327 356

EliaPasquale M. d’RicciMatteo Fonti ricciane: Documenti originali concernenti Matteo Ricci e la storia delle prime relazioni tra l’Europa e la Cina (1579-1615). 1942-9 Rome Libreria dello Stato 3 vols

ElmanBenjamin On Their Own Terms: Science in China 1550-1900 2005 Cambridge, Mass Harvard University Press

GernetJacques China and the Christian Impact: A Conflict of Cultures 1985 Cambridge Cambridge University Press

GoodrichL. CarringtonFangZhaoying Dictionary of Ming Biography 1368-1644 1976 New York Columbia University Press

HsiaRonnie Po-Chia AntoniM.ÜçerlerJ. The Jesuit encounter with Buddhism in Ming China Christianity and Cultures: Japan & China in Comparison 1543-1644 2009 Rome Institutum historicum Societatis Iesu 19 43

KuwataRokuro̅ IkeuchiH. Minmatsu shinsho no kaiju To̅yo̅shi ronso̅: Shiratori hakushi kanreki kinen 1925 Tokyo Iwanami Shoten 377 386

KiyosiYabuuti Islamic Astronomy in China during the Yuan and Ming Dynasties Historia Scientiarium 1997 7 11 43

LancashireDouglas Buddhist Reaction to Christianity in Late Ming China Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia 1968-9 6 1-2 82 102

LangYing Qi xiu leigao 2001 Shanghai Shanghai shudian chubanshe

LiXian Da Ming yi tong zhi 1965 Taipei Tongyi chuban

LiuZhi Tianfang zhisheng shilu 1984 Beijing Zhongguo Yisilanjiao xiehui (1704 fac. ed.)

MaZhu Qingzhen zhinan 1987 Yinchuan Ningxia shaoshu minzu guji zhengli

MaZhu Qing biao bao Qingzhen Zhinan 1990 Xining Qinghai Chubanshe 26 28

MakīnMuḥammad (Ma Jian) Naẓra jāmiʿa ilā taʾrīkh al-Islām fī l-ṣīn wa-aḥwāl al-Muslimīn fīhā: Zhungguo Huijiao gaiguan 1934 Cairo al-Maṭbaʿa al-Salafiyya

MalekRomanLippielloTiziana Scholar from the West: Giulio Aleni S.J. (1582-1649) and the Dialogue between Christianity and China 1997 Brescia Fondazione civiltà bresciana

MurataSachiko The Sage Learning of Liu Zhi: Islamic Thought in Confucian Terms 2009 Cambridge Harvard University Asia Center

PanskayaLudmila Introduction to Palladii’s Chinese Literature of the Muslims 1977 Canberra Australian National University

RicciMatteo LancashireDouglasKuo-chenP. Hu MalatestaE.J. The True Meaning of the Lord of Heaven 1985 Taipei, St. Louis Institut Ricci, Institute of Jesuit Sources (a Chinese-English ed. of T’ien-chu Shih-i)

RicciMatteo Ri Mato̅ Kon’yo bankoku zenzu 1996 Kyoto Rinsen Shoten

RicciMatteoZhuWeizhengDengZhifeng Li Madou Zhong wen zhu yi ji 2001 Xianggang Xianggang chen shi daxue chubanshe

SemedoAlvaro The History of That Great Renowned Monarchy of China: Wherein All the Particular Provinces Are Accurately Described 1655 London E. Tyler for Iohn Crook

SpenceJonathan The Memory Palace of Matteo Ricci 1984 New York Viking Penguin

TuWeiming MurataSachiko Foreword Chinese Gleams of Sufi Light 2000 Albany SUNY Press vii xiv

TuWeiming MurataSachikoChittickWilliam C.TuWeiming Epilogue The Sage Learning of Liu Zhi: Islamic Thought in Confucian Terms 2009 Cambridge Harvard University Asia Center 581 617

WangDaiyu Zheng jiao zhen quan; Qing zhen da xue; Xi zhen zheng da 1999 Yinchuan Ningxia renmin chubanshe

WangFeng Zhongguo Huizu kexue jishu shi 2008 Yinching Ningxia Renmin Chubanshe

WangFeng Zhongguo Huizu kexue jishu shi 2008 Yinching Ningxia Renmin Chubanshe

WuCheng’en The Journey to the West 1977 Chicago University of Chicago Press

XuSong Xiyu shui dao ji: Wai er zhong 2005 Beijing Zhonghua shuju

ZürcherErik HuangChun-ChiehZürcherErik ‘In the Beginning’: 17th-Century Chinese Reaction to Christian Creationism Time and Space in Chinese Culture 1995 Leiden Brill

ZurndorferH.T. BlusséL.ZurndorferH.T. “One Adam Having Driven Us Out of Paradise, Another Has Driven Us Out of China”: Yang Kuang-hsien’s Challenge of Adam Schall von Bell,” Conflict and Accommodation in Early Modern East Asia: Essays in Honour of Erik Zürcher 1993 Leiden E.J. Brill 141 168

1)

P.M. D’ElieFonti Ricciane: Documenti originali concernenti Matteo Ricci e la storia delle prime relazioni tra l’Europa e la Cina (1579-1615) (Rome: La Libreria Dello Stato1942): 1:179; the translation is based on Gernet’s translation with my minor amendments. J. Gernet China and the Christian Impact: A Conflict of Cultures (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1985). See also M. Ricci The True Meaning of the Lord of Heaven (a Chinese-English ed. of T’ien-chu Shih-i) ed. Douglas Lancashire and P. Hu Kuo-chen trans. E.J. Malatesta (Taipei: Institut Ricci 1985); I use this Chinese-English edition throughout.

2)

E.J. Zürcher“ ‘In the Beginning’: 17th-Century Chinese Reaction to Christian Creationis,” in Time and Space in Chinese Cultureed. C. Huang and E.J. Zürcher (Leiden: Brill 1995): 143.

4)

Jonathan SpenceThe Memory Palace of Matteo Ricci (New York: Viking Penguin1984): 120. D’Elie Fonti: 2:140.

9)

L. PanskayaIntroduction to Palladii’s Chinese Literature of Muslims (Canberra: Australian National University1977): 67-8.

10)

R. Kuwata“Minmatsu shinsho no kaiju,” in Toȳos̅hi ronso̅: Shiratori hakushi kanreki kinened. H. Ikeuchi (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten 1925): 377-86.

11)

M. Makīn (Ma Jian)Naẓra jāmiʿa ilā taʾrīkh al-Islām fī l-Ṣīn wa-aḥwāl al-Muslimīn fīhā: Zhungguo Huijiao gaiguan (Cairo: al-Maṭbaʿa al-Salafiyya1934).

14)

Z. Ben-Dor BeniteThe Dao of Muhammad: A Cultural History of Muslims in Late Imperial China (Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center2005).

16)

A. SemedoThe History of That Great Renowned Monarchy of China: Wherein All the Particular Provinces Are Accurately Described (London: E. Tyler for Iohn Crook1655): 152.

23)

W. Cheng’enThe Journey to the West (Chicago: University of Chicago Press1977).

24)

D. Lancashire“Buddhist Reaction to Christianity in Late Ming China,” Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia 6/1-2 (1968-9): 82-102.

27)

See for instance K. Yabuuti“Islamic Astronomy in China during the Yuan and Ming Dynasties,” Historia Scientiarium 7 (1997): 11-43; B. Van Dalen “Islamic and Chinese Astronomy under the Mongols: A Little-Known Case of Transmission” in From China to Paris: 2000 Years Transmission of Mathematical Ideas ed. Y. Dold-Samplonius et al. (Stuttgart: Steiner 2002): 327-56.

28)

W. FengZhongguo Huizu kexue jishu shi (Yinching: Ningxia Renmin Chubanshe2008): 24-114. On Muslim pride about Islamic science see Zvi Ben-Dor Benite “The Marrano Emperor: The Mysterious Bond between Zhu Yuanzhang and the Chinese Muslims” in Long Live the Emperor! Uses of the Ming Founder Across Six Centuries of East Asian History ed. S. Schneewind (Minneapolis: Society for Ming Studies 2008): 275-308.

32)

X. LiDa Ming yitong zhi (paginated facsimile) (Taipei: Tongyi chuban1965): 10:5556-7.

33)

Y. LangQi xiu leigao (Shanghai: Shanghai shudian chubanshe2001): 181-2.

34)

Ben-Dor BeniteThe Dao of Muhammad18-9.

35)

W. DaiyuZheng jiao zhen quan; Qing zhen da xue; Xi zhen zheng da (Yinchuan: Ningxia renmin chubanshe1999): 32.

36)

Zh. Ma“Qing Biao Bao,” in Qingzhen zhinan (Xining: Qinghai 1990): 26.

39)

R. Malek and T. LippielloScholar from the West: Giulio Aleni S.J. (1582-1649) and the Dialogue between Christianity and China (Brescia: Fondazione civiltà bresciana1997).

46)

Zh. LiuTianfang zhi sheng shilu (1704, fac. ed.), (Beijing: Zhongguo Yisilan jiao xiehui1984): 19:37-8. For Aleni’s work see G. Alenio Zhifang waiji (Shanghai: Shangwu yinshuguan 1936).

47)

See S. MurataThe Sage Learning of Liu Zhi: Islamic Thought in Confucian Terms (Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center2009).

49)

L.M. BrockeyJourney to the East: The Jesuit Mission to China 1579-1724 (Cambridge MA: Belknap Press2007): 106. On Ricci and Buddhism see R. Po-chia Hsia A Jesuit in the Forbidden City: Matteo Ricci 1552-1610 (Oxford: Oxford University Press 2010): 135-6.

65)

MaQingzhen zhinan (Yinchuan: Ningxia shaoshu minzu guji zhengli1987): 53.

70)

Ben-Dor BeniteThe Dao of Muhammad166-8.

Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 12 12 9
Full Text Views 3 3 3
PDF Downloads 2 2 2
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0