New Perspectives on Factor Markets and Ancient Middle Eastern Economies: A Survey

in Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient
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The conventional view of markets for land, labour, and capital as a modern, Western phenomenon is questionable. Factor markets did indeed exist in Iraq, and even thrived, in various parts of its pre-modern history, including the period around 2000 bce, the “long” sixth century (c. 620-480 bce), and the eighth and ninth centuries ce. By employing the long-term approach used in this issue of jesho and by placing the organization of these markets in their wider social-political context, we can understand better how these markets developed, how they functioned, and why they rose and declined again.

New Perspectives on Factor Markets and Ancient Middle Eastern Economies: A Survey

in Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient



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See for instance Erdkamp 2005: 106-205and several chapters in van der Spek et al. 2013.


The estimate based on Adams (1981) is criticized by other scholars including Walter Scheidel as too high.


Waines 1977: 286; Campopiano 2012: 5-50; Adams 1965: 71 84-85; Ashtor 1976: 63 172.


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