New Perspectives on Factor Markets and Ancient Middle Eastern Economies: A Survey

In: Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient
View More View Less
  • 1 Utrecht University

Abstract

The conventional view of markets for land, labour, and capital as a modern, Western phenomenon is questionable. Factor markets did indeed exist in Iraq, and even thrived, in various parts of its pre-modern history, including the period around 2000 bce, the “long” sixth century (c. 620-480 bce), and the eighth and ninth centuries ce. By employing the long-term approach used in this issue of jesho and by placing the organization of these markets in their wider social-political context, we can understand better how these markets developed, how they functioned, and why they rose and declined again.

  • Adams Robert McCormick Land behind Baghdad: A History of Settlement on the Diyala Plains 1965 Chicago University of Chicago Press

  • Adams Robert McCormick Heartland of Cities: Surveys of Ancient Settlement and Land Use on the Central Floodplain of the Euphrates 1981 Chicago University of Chicago Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aperghis G.G. The Seleukid Royal Economy: The Finances and Financial Administration of the Seleukid Empire 2004 Cambridge Cambridge University Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ashtor E. A Social and Economic History of the Near East in the Middle Ages 1976 Berkeley University of California Press

  • Bavel Bas J.P. van The Medieval Origins of Capitalism in the Netherlands Low Countries Historical Review 2010 125 45 80

  • Bavel Bas van, de Moor Tine & Luiten van Zanden Jan Introduction: Factor Markets in Global Economic History Continuity & Change 2009 24 9 21

  • Block Fred & Evans Peter Smelser Neil J. & Swedberg Richard The State and the Economy The Handbook of Economic Sociology 2005 Princeton Princeton University Press 505 526

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Campbell Bruce M.S. Factor Markets in England before the Black Death Continuity and Change 2009 24 79 106

  • Campopiano M. State, Land Tax and Agriculture in Iraq from the Arab Conquest to the Crisis of the Abbasid Caliphate (Seventh-Tenth Centuries) Studia Islamica 2012 3 5 50

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dercksen J.G. Old Assyrian Institutions 2004 Leiden Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten

  • Dols M.W. Plague in Early Islamic History Journal of the American Oriental Society 1974 94 371 383

  • Edwards Jeremy & Ogilvie Sheilagh Contract Enforcement, Institutions, and Social Capital: The Maghribi Traders Reappraised Economic History Review 2012 65 2 421 444

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ellis M.J. Agriculture and the State in Ancient Mesopotamia. An Introduction to Problems of Land Tenure 1976 Philadelphia The Babylonian Fund

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Englund Robert K. Bauer J., Englund R.K. & Krebernik M. Texts from the Late Uruk Period Späturuk-Zeit und frühdynastische Zeit 1998 Freiburg 15 233 (Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis 160/1)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Erdkamp Paul The Grain Market in the Roman Empire 2005 Cambridge Cambridge University Press

  • Finley Moses The Ancient Economy 1973 Berkeley University of California Press

  • Földvári Peter & van Leeuwen Bas Comparing Per Capita Income in the Hellenistic World: The Case of Mesopotamia The Review of Income and Wealth 2012 58 550 568

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Garraty C.P. Garraty C.P. & Stark B.L. Investigating Market Exchange in Ancient Societies: A Theoretical Review Archaeological Approaches to Market Exchange in Ancient Societies 2010 Boulder University Press of Colorado 3 32

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gelb I.J. Lipínski E. Household and Family State and Temple Economy in the Ancient Near East 1979 Louvain Departement Oriëntalistiek 1 97

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Granovetter Mark Granovetter M.S. & Swedberg R. Economic Action and Social Structure The Sociology of Economic Life 2001 Boulder Westview

  • Greif Avner Contract Enforceability and Economic Institutions in Early Trade: The Maghribi Traders’ Coalition American Economic Review 1993 83 525 548

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jursa Michael Clancier Ph., Joannes F., Rouillard P. & Tenu A. Money-Based Exchange and Redistribution: The Transformation of the Institutional Economy in First Millennium Babylonia Autour de Polanyi: Vocabulaires, théories et modalités des échanges 2005 Paris 171 186

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jursa Michael Aspects of the Economic History of Babylonia in the First Millennium BC: Economic Geography, Economic Mentalities, Agriculture, the Use of Money and the Problem of Economic Growth 2010 Münster Ugarit Verlag

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jursa Michael & Waerzeggers Caroline Briant P. & Chauveau M. On Aspects of Taxation in Achaemenid Babylonia: New Evidence from Borsippa Organisation des pouvoirs et contacts culturels dans les pays de l’empire achéménide 2009 Paris Editions de Boccard 237 270 (Persika 14)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kleber Kristin Famine in Babylonia. A Microhistorical Approach to an Agricultural crisis in 528-526 bc Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und Vorderasiatische Archäologie 2012 102 219 244

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kolínski R. Kogan L. Between City Institutions and Markets. Mesopotamian Traders of the Second Millennium bc. City Administration in the Ancient Near East 2010 Poznañ 81 95

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lautner Julius Georg Altbabylonische Personenmiete und Erntearbeiterverträge 1936 Leiden E.J. Brill

  • Leemans W.F. The Rôle of Landlease in Mesopotamia in the Early Second Millennium BC Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 1975 18 134 145

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Løkkegaard Frede Islamic Taxation in the Classic Period, with Special Reference to Circumstances in Iraq 1978 Philadelphia Porcupine Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MacEvedy C. & Jones R. Atlas of World Population History 1978 Harmondsworth Penguin

  • Mauer Gerlinde Das Formular der altbabylonischen Pachtverträge 1979 PhD diss., Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität zu München

  • Mauer Gerlinde Agriculture in the Old Babylonian period Journal of the Ancient Near East Society 1983 15 63 78

  • Mieroop Marc van de Society and Enterprise in Old Babylonian Ur 1992 Berlin D. Reimer

  • Mieroop Marc van de The Ancient Mesopotamian City 1997 Oxford Oxford University Press

  • Mieroop Marc van de A History of the Ancient Near East, ca. 3000-323 BC 2004 Oxford Blackwell

  • Muldrew C. Interpreting the Market: The Ethics of Credit and Community Relations in Early Modern England Social History 1993 18 163 183

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nee Victor & Paul Ingram Paul Brinton M. & Nee V. Embeddedness and Beyond: Institutions, Exchange and Social Structure The New Institutionalism in Sociology 1998 New York Russell Sage Foundation 19 45

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Neumann Hans Handwerk in Mesopotamien: Untersuchungen zu seiner Organisation in der Zeit der III. Dynastie von Ur 1993 Berlin Akademie Verlag

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • North D.C. Markets and Other Allocation Systems in History: The Challenge of Karl Polanyi Journal of European Economic History 1977 6 703 716

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • North D.C. Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance 1990 Cambridge Cambridge University Press

  • Oates D. & Oates J. Sieveking G., Longworth I.H. & Wilson K.E. Early Irrigation Agriculture in Mesopotamia Problems in Economic and Social Archeology 1976 London Duckworth 109 135

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oates J. Friedman J. & Rowlands M.J. Mesopotamian Social Organisation: Archaeological and Philosophical Evidence The Evolution of Social Systems 1977 London Gerald Duckworth 457 485

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ogilvie Sheilagh “Whatever Is, Is Right”? Economic Institutions in Pre-Industrial Europe Economic History Review 2007 60 649 684

  • Olson Mancur The Rise and Decline of Nations: Economic Growth, Stagflation, and Social Rigidities 1982 New Haven Yale University Press

  • Pamuk Şevket & Shatzmiller Maya Plagues, Wages, and Economic Change in the Islamic Middle East, 700-1500 Journal of Economic History 2014 74 1 1 34

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pirngruber Reinhard Exogenous Shocks and Babylonian Commodity Prices 2011 Amsterdam Unpub. paper

    • Export Citation
  • Polanyi Karl Pearson H.W. The Livelihood of Man 1977 New York Academic

  • Postgate John Nicholas Early Mesopotamia: Society and Economy at the Dawn of History 1992 London and New York Routledge

  • Powell Marvin A. Labor in the Ancient Near East 1987 New Haven American Oriental Society

  • Powell Marvin A. Money in Ancient Mesopotamia Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 1996 39 3 224 242

  • Renger Johannes Brentjes B. Das Privateigentum an der Feldflur in der altbabylonischen Zeit Das Grundeigentum in Mesopotamien 1987 Berlin Akademie Verlag 49 67

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Renger Johannes Institutional, Communal, and Individual Ownership or Possession of Arable Land in Ancient Mesopotamia from the End of the Fourth to the End of the First Millennium B.C Chicago-Kent Law Review 1995 71 269 319

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rost Stephanie Selz Gebhard J. & Wagensonner Klaus Irrigation Management in the Ur III Period: A Reconsideration Based on a Case Study of the Maintenance of the íd-NINA-šè-DU Canal of the Province Lagaš Die empirische Dimension altorientalischer Forschungen 2011 Vienna Lit 211 269 (Wiener Offene Orientalistik 6)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Silver Morris Karl Polanyi and Markets in the Ancient Near East: The Challenge of the Evidence Journal of Economic History 1983 43 795 829

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Snell D.C. Life in the Ancient Near East 1997 New Haven Yale University Press

  • Spek R.J. van der Alston Richard & van Nijf O.M. Feeding Hellenistic Seleucia on the Tigris and Babylon Feeding the Ancient City 2008 Leuven Peeters

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spek R.J. van der Luiten van Zanden Jan & van Leeuwen Bas A History of Market Performance: From Ancient Babylonia to the Modern World 2013 Oxford Routledge

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Soltysiak Arkadiusz Preliminary Report from Tell Ashara: Terqa, Seasons 2003-2004 Athenaeum 2007 95 435 439

  • Stegl M. & Baten J. Tall and Shrinking Muslims, Short and Growing Europeans: The Long-Run Welfare Development of the Middle East, 1850-1980 Explorations in Economic History 2009 46 132 148

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Steinkeller Piotr Renting of Fields in Early Mesopotamia and the Development of the Concept of “Interest” in Sumerian Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 1981 24 2 113 145

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Steinkeller Piotr Notes on the Irrigation System in Third Millennium Southern Babylonia Bulletin on Sumerian Agriculture 1988 4 73 92

  • Steinkeller Piotr Sale Documents of the Ur III period 1989 Stuttgart Franz Steiner Verlag (Freiburger Altorientalische Studien 17)

  • Steinkeller Piotr Liverani M. Early Political Development in Mesopotamia and the Origins of the Sargonic Empire Akkad. The First World Empire. Structure, Ideology, Traditions 1993 Padua Sargon 107 129 (History of the Ancient Near East, Studies 5)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Steinkeller Piotr Rollinger R. & Ulf C. Toward a Definition of Private Economic Activity in Third Millennium Babylonia. Commerce and Monetary Systems in the Ancient World: Means of Transmission and Cultural Interaction 2004 Stuttgart Franz Steiner 91 112

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stolper Matthew W. Entrepreneurs and Empire. The Murasu Archive, the Murasu Firm, and Persian Rule in Babylonia 1985 Leiden Nederlands Historisch-Archaeologisch Instituut te Istanbul

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Waines D. The Third Century of Internal Crisis of the Abbasids Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 1977 20 282 306

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yoffee Norman Hudson M. & Levine B. Review of Urbanization and Land Organization in the Ancient Near East Journal of the American Oriental Society 2001 121 2 303 305

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    See, for instance, Erdkamp 2005: 106-205, and several chapters in van der Spek et al. 2013.

  • 12

    The estimate, based on Adams (1981), is criticized by other scholars, including Walter Scheidel, as too high.

  • 36

    Waines 1977: 286; Campopiano 2012: 5-50; Adams 1965: 71, 84-85; Ashtor 1976: 63, 172.

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 248 53 5
Full Text Views 211 11 1
PDF Downloads 16 4 1