Lack of direct evidence on the functioning of factor markets in Sasanian/Late Antique Iraq makes it difficult to present a clear picture of the production side of economy during this period. However, relying on the Talmudic evidence, as well as what is mentioned in the Mādayān ī Hezār Dādestān (mhd), this article aims to provide an idea of factor markets during the Sasanian period, as well as demonstrating the areas where further evidence and research could render better results and allow us to understand the economy of this region in more depth.
AlramMichaelGyselenRikaSylloge Nummorum Sasanidarum 1. Band I: Ardashir I.—Shapur I.2003Veröffentlichungen der Numismatischen Kommission Band 41ViennaVerlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
GignouxPhilippeGyselenRikaLa collection de textes attribuables à Dādēn-vindād dans l’Archive pehlevi de BerkeleySources for the History of Sasanian and Post-Sasanian Iran (Res Orientales XIX)2010LeuvenPeters11134
JullienChristellGyselenRikaContribution des Actes des Martyrs Perses a la geographie historique et a l’administration de l’Empire SassanideContributions a l’histoire et la geographie historique de l’Empire Sassanide (Res Orientales XVI)2004LeuvenPeeters141169
MoronyMichael G.KhalidiTarifLandholding and Social Change: Lower al-’Iraq in the Early Islamic PeriodLand Tenure and Social Transformation in the Middle East1984BeirutAmerican University of Beirut209222
MoronyMichael G.Population Transfers Between Sasanian Iran and the Byzantine EmpireLa Persia e Bisanzio. Atti del Convegno internazionale (Roma 14-18 ottobre 2002)2004bRomeAccademia Nazionale dei Lincei161179
MoronyMichael G.LittleLester K.‘For Whom Does the Writer Write?’: The First Bubonic Plague Pandemic According to Syriac SourcesPlague and the End of Antiquity: the Pandemic of 541-7502007CambridgeCambridge University Press5986
Sarkhosh CurtisVestaAlramMichaelKlimburg-SalterDeborah E.Some Observations on Coins of Peroz and Kavad ICoins Art and Chronology: Essays on pre-Islamic History of the Indo-Iranian Borderlands1999ViennaVerlag der Osterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften303313
Chegini and Nikitin1996: 35-77is a typical attempt at providing a summary which lacks from the usual pitfalls of generalisation and relying on a limited set of data although it does try to make good use of monumental architecture (which is the speciality of the authors). Better attempt is made by Gyselen 1997.
Rezakhani (2010) where this agricultural innovation is seen as the predecessor of the economic change and the “Green Revolution” of the early Islamic period as argued by Watson 1981.
Macuch1993: 152reads the second number as 100 (which makes more sense) see also Macuch 1993: 164 for her commentary on the reading.
See Macuch1993: 371for the specific discussion of this matter which is in fact in the context of settling of the debts of a deceased person.
Christensen1944: 150. This perfect division is only presented in Tansar’s Letter a New Persian translation of a Middle Persian political treatise written probably sometimes in the late Sasanian times but attributed to Tansar a third century priest: Minovi 1354/1975.
Christensen1944: 149; Benveniste 1932: 117-134. However Morony 1974 includes a description of what might have been the real situation for the religious minorities under the Sasanian rule at least in Asōrestān/Iraq.
Chaumont 1989. Also Zakeri1995: 29-31on the status of the āzādān as the landowning class who at the same time formed the backbone of the late Sasanian army.
EvagriusEcclesiastical History5.19 (quoted in Morony 2004b: 176).