Khidma (Ar., literally “service”) denotes the binding subordination of a slave or free-born noble to a lord, master, or patron—often the ruling sultan, but sometimes lesser figures—involving mutual obligations and mutual loyalty. This article studies this relationship and the ceremonies by which it was concluded in eastern Iran in the twelfth century, on the level of political thinking and, as far as possible, of political practice.
al-Bundārī al-Iṣfahānīal-Fatḥ b. ʿAlī b. MuḥammadHoutsmaM.Th.Zubdat al-nuṣra wa-nuḥbat al-ʿuṣraRecueil de textes relatifs à l’histoire des Seldjoucides1889vol. 2LeidenBrillHistoire des Seldjoucides de l’Irâq
HanneEricGruendlerBeatriceMarlowLouiseAbbasid Politics and the Classical Theory of the CaliphateWriters and Rulers: Perspectives on Their Relationship from Abbasid to Safavid Times2004WiesbadenReichert4971
PaulJürgenAlimovaDiloramNegotiating Transitions. How Muḥammad b. Tekesh Khwārazmshāh Consolidated His PowerHistory of Central Asia in Modern Medieval Studies. In Memoriam of Professor Roziya Mukminova2013aTashkentYangi Nashr5266
PaulJürgenBemmannJanForces and Resources. Notes on the Regional State of Sulṭānshāh b. Il ArslanComplexity of Interaction along the Eurasian Steppe ZoneForthcomingBonnVor- und Frühgeschichtliche Archäologie, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
SimidchievaMartaGruendlerBeatriceMarlowLouiseKingship and Legitimacy in Niẓām al-Mulk’s SiyāsatnāmaWriters and Rulers. Perspectives on Their Relationship from Abbasid to Safavid Times2004WiesbadenReichert97131
YounisMohammad M.CallegherBrunod’OttoneArianna“Malik mulūk al-umarāʾ.” New Laqab on Ai Aba DinarThe 3rd Simone Assemani Symposium on Islamic Coins2012TriesteEdizioni Università di Trieste210219(http://hdl.handle.net/10077/8087)
A. LambtonState and Government in Medieval Islam. An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Political Theory: The Jurists (Oxford: Oxford University Press1981); A. Black History of Islamic Political Thought. From the Prophet to the Present (Edinburgh: University Press 2011); P. Crone Medieval Islamic Political Thought (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press 2004); G. Bowering (ed.) Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought (Princeton: Princeton University Press 2013). The importance of the caliph as a source not only of legitimation for political rule but also of authority in legal matters is not discussed in the present article. E. Hanne “Abbasid Politics and the Classical Theory of the Caliphate”. In Writers and Rulers: Perspectives on Their Relationship from Abbasid to Safavid Times ed. Beatrice Gruendler and Louise Marlow (Wiesbaden: Reichert 2004): 49-71.
A. LambtonContinuity and Change in Medieval Persia. Aspects of Administrative Economic and Social History 11th-14th Century (Albany NY: Persian Heritage Foundation1988): 369-370; A. Lambton “Eqṭāʿ ”. Encyclopedia Iranica vol. 8 (Costa Mesa: Mazda Publishers 1998): 520-533.
For the term see T. WelsfordFour Types of Loyalty in Early Modern Central Asia. The Tūqāy-Tīmūrid Takeover of Greater Mā warā al-Nahr 1598-1605 (Leiden: Brill2012): 17 and M. Rustow “Loyalty.” In The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought ed. Gerhard Bowering (Princeton: University Press 2013): 318a-319b.—Welsford defines “loyalty” as “an individual’s self-subjugation to something which is not him whether this be to an individual a group or any other entity.” He then proposes to analyze loyalties “with reference to people’s differing motivations for undertaking self-subjugation.” This is not the method followed in the present contribution. In the period under study Mottahedeh’s approach focusing on “juridical categories” seems to yield better results. Welsford Four Types of Loyalty: 17-21.