Imperial Crisis and Muslim-Christian Relations in Ottoman Syria and Palestine, c. 1770-1830

in Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

In the middle of the nineteenth century, a wave of anti-Christian violence broke out in Ottoman Syria. Prevailing interpretations tie this social turmoil to the region’s sudden integration into the modern world economy, further aggravated by state reforms that upset long-standing political hierarchies. This paper argues that the origins of these disturbances lay not in the penetration of the modern world economy but in the extended political crisis that shook the Ottoman Empire during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Sectarian tensions therefore need to be seen, at their root, as political reactions to the slow disintegration of the early-modern political order. In its timing and causes, this Ottoman experience helps to highlight a broader “sectarian turn” that overtook many other parts of Eurasia in the same period.

Imperial Crisis and Muslim-Christian Relations in Ottoman Syria and Palestine, c. 1770-1830

in Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient

Sections

References

Abu HusaynAbdul-Rahim The View from Istanbul: Ottoman Lebanon and the Druze Emirate 2002 New York I.B. Tauris

Abu MannehButrus The Naqshbandiyya-Mujaddidiyya in the Ottoman Lands in the Early 19th Century Die Welts des Islams 1982 22 1 36

Abu MannehButrus Sheikh Murad al-Bukhari and the Expansion of the Naqshbandi-Mujaddidi Order in Istanbul Die Welt des Islams 2013 53 1 1 25

Abu SaʿbYusuf ShihabHaydar AhmadShibliAntuniyusʿAbdu KhalifaIghnatiyus Nubdha khittiyya qadima fi tarikh al-mashayikh Al al-Dahdahiyya Tarikh Ahmad Basha al-Jazzar 1955 Beirut Maktabat Antwan

PaşaAhmet Cevdet Cevdet Tarihi n.d. 12 vols Istanbul

Anonymous SabbanuAhmad Ghassan Mudhakkarat tarikiyya ʿan hamlat Ibrahim Basha ʿala Suriya n.d. Damascus Dar Qutayba

AnscombeFrederick F. Islam and the Age of Ottoman Reform Past and Present 2010 208 159 189

al-ʿAwraIbrahim QiqanuAntun Bishara Tarikh wilayat Sulayman Basha al-ʿAdil 1989 Beirut Dar Lahad Khatir

BaerMarc David The Great Fire of 1660 and the Islamization of Christian and Jewish Space in Istanbul International Journal of Middle East Studies 2004 36 159 181

BaerMarc David Honored by the Glory of Islam: Conversion and Conquest in Ottoman Europe 2008 New York Oxford University Press

BaerMarc David The Dönme: Jewish Converts Muslim Revolutionaries and Secular Turks 2010 Palo Alto Stanford University Press

BaerMarc DavidMakdisiUssamaShryockAndrew Tolerance and Conversion in the Ottoman Empire: A Conversation Comparative Studies in Society and History 2009 51 927 940

BarkeyKaren Empire of Difference: The Ottomans in Comparative Perspective 2008 New York Columbia University Press

BarsoumianHagop BraudeBenjaminLewisBernard The Dual Role of the Armenian Amira Class within the Ottoman Government and the Armenian Millet (1750-1850) Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire 1982 Princeton Princeton University Press 171 184

BaylyC.A. Imperial Meridian: The British Empire and the World 1780-1820 1989 London Longman

BaylyC.A. The Pre-History of “Communalism”? Religious Conflict in India, 1700-1860 Modern Asian Studies 1985 19 177 203

BryerAnthony The Crypto-Christians of the Pontos and Consul William Gifford Palgrave of Trebizond Deltio Kentrou Mikrasiatikon Spoudon 1983 4 17 34

BuraykMikhaʾil SabbanuAhmad Ghassan Tarikh al-Sham 1982 Damascus Dar Qutayba

BurckhardtJohn Lewis Travels in Syria and the Holy Land 1822 London J. Murray

BüssowJohann Street Politics in Damascus: Kinship and Other Social Consequences as Bases of Political Action, 1830-41 History of the Family 2011 16 108 125

BüssowJohannSafiKhaled Damascus Affairs: Egyptian Rule in Syria through the Eyes of an Anonymous Damascene Chronicler 1831-1841 2013 Würzburg Ergon

CahenClaude WilliamsJ. Jones Pre-Ottoman Turkey: A General Survey of the Material and Spiritual Culture and History c. 1070-1330 1968 London Taplinger

CareyPeter The Power of Prophecy: Prince Dipanagara and the End of the Old Order in Java 1785-1855 2007 Leiden Brill

ChandraSatish Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals 1999 2 vols New Delhi Har-Anand Publications

Charles-RouxFr. Les Échelles de Syrie et de Palestine au xviiie siècle 1928 Paris P. Geuthner

CohenAmnon BraudeBenjaminLewisBernard On the Realities of the Millet System: Jerusalem in the 16th Century Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire 1982 2 New York Holmes & Meier 7 15

CohenAmnon Palestine in the Eighteenth Century: Patterns of Government and Administration 1973 Jerusalem Hebrew University

ColeJuan Napoleon’s Egypt: Invading the Middle East 2007 New York Palgrave Macmillan

ColleyLinda Britons: Forging the Nation 1707-1837 1992 New Haven Yale University Press

DavisonRoderic Turkish Attitudes Concerning Christian-Muslim Equality in the Nineteenth Century American Historical Review 1954 59 844 864

DeringilSelim Conversion and Apostasy in the Late Ottoman Empire 2012 New York Cambridge University Press

al-DimashqiMikhaʾil SabbanuAhmad Ghassan Tarikh hawadith al-Sham wa-Lubnan aw tarikh Mikhaʾil al-Dimashqi (1782-1841) 1982 Damascus Dar Qutayba

DobbinChristine Islamic Revivalism in a Changing Peasant Economy: Central Sumatra 1784-1847 1983 London Curzon Press

EldemEdhem French Trade in Istanbul in the Eighteenth Century 1999 Leiden Brill

ErdemHakan BirtekFarukDragonasThalia Do Not Think of the Greeks as Agricultural Laborers: Ottoman Responses to the Greek War of Independence Citizenship and the Nation-State in Greece and Turkey 2005 London Routledge 67 84

FarrellSean Rituals and Riots: Sectarian Violence and Political Culture in Ulster 1784-1886 2000 Lexington University Press of Kentucky

FawazLeila Tarazi An Occasion for War: Civil Conflict in Lebanon and Damascus in 1860 1994 Los Angeles University of California Press

FotiadisKostas Die Islamisierung Kleinasiens und die Kryptochristen des Pontos 1985 University of Tübingen Ph.D. diss.

Frangakis-SyrettElena The Commerce of Smyrna in the Eighteenth Century (1700-1820) 1992 Athens Center for Asia Minor Studies

FreitagSandria Collective Action and Community: Public Arenas and the Emergence of Communalism in North India 1989 Berkeley University of California Press

GammerMoshe Muslim Resistance to the Tsar: Shamil and the Conquest of Chechnia and Daghestan 1994 London F. Cass

GhandurDahir Al-nuzum al-intikhabiyya: Dirasa muqarana li-ahamm al-qawanin al-intikhabiyya fi l-ʿalam: Al-hayat al-niyabiya wa-l-tasriʿat al-intikhabiyya fi Lubnan 1992 Beirut al-Markaz al-Watani lil-Maʿlumat wa-l-Dirasat

al-GhustawiBulus ʿAbbud Basaʾir al-zaman fi tarikh al-ʿallama al-Batriyark Yusuf Istifan 1911 Beirut

al-GhustawiBulus ʿAbbud Twilight of the Saints: Everyday Religion in Ottoman Syria and Palestine 2014 New York Oxford University Press

GrehanJames Everyday Life and Consumer Culture in Eighteenth-Century Damascus 2007 Seattle University of Washington Press

al-HalabiBulus al-BashaQustantin Nukhba min safrat al-Batriyark Makariyus al-Halabi 1912 Harisa, Lebanon Matbaʿat al-Qiddis Bulus

HamadehShirine The Pleasures of the City 2008 Seattle University of Washington Press

HannaʿAbdallah Harakat al-ʿammiyya al-dimashqiyya fi l-qarnayn al-thamin ʿashar wa-l-tasiʿ ʿashar 1985 Beirut Dar Ibn Khaldun

HarikIlyas Politics and Change in a Traditional Society: Lebanon 1711-1845 1968 Princeton Princeton University Press

AghaHasan NuʿaysaYusuf Tarikh Hasan Agha al-ʿAbd 1979 Damascus Wizarat al-Thaqafa wa-l-Irshad al-Qawmi

HaydonColin ClaydonTonyMcBrideIan “I Love My King and My Country, but a Roman Catholic I Hate”: Anti-Catholicism, Xenophobia, and National Identity in Eighteenth-Century England Protestantism and National Identity: Britain and Ireland c. 1650-1850 1998 Cambridge Cambridge University Press chap. 2.

HeybergerBernard Les Chrétiens du Proche-Orient au temps de la Réforme catholique 1994 Rome École Français de Rome

HouraniAlbert PolkWilliam R.ChambersRichard L. Ottoman Reform and the Politics of Notables The Beginnings of Modernization in the Modern Middle East: The Nineteenth Century 1968 Chicago University of Chicago Press 41 68

KannanIbn al-ʿUlabiAkram Yawmiyat shamiyya 1994 Damascus Dar al-Tabbaʿ

al-JabartiʿAbd al-Rahman ʿAbd al-RahimʿAbd al-Rahman Mazhar al-taqdis bi-zawal dawlat al-Fransis 1998 Cairo Matbaʿat Dar al-Kutub al-Misriyya

al-JabartiʿAbd al-Rahman ʿAja’ib al-athar fi l-tarajim wa-l-akhbar n.d. Beirut Dar al-Jil

al-JamilIlyas ShihabHaydar AhmadShibliAntuniyusʿAbdu KhalifaIghnatiyus Bayna Lubnan wa-Suriya fi ʿahd al-Shihabiyin: Athr tarikhi qadim min ayyam al-Jazzar fi Bayrut Tarikh Ahmad Basha al-Jazzar 1955 Beirut Maktabat Antwan

KaramahRufaʾil QattanBasilus Hawadith Lubnan wa-Suriya min sanat 1745 ila sanat 1800 1983 Beirut Jarrus

KarpatKemal The Politicization of Islam: Reconstructing Identity State Faith and Community in the Late Ottoman State 2001 Oxford Oxford University Press

KhalafSamir Lebanon’s Predicament 1987 New York Columbia University Press

KrämerGudrun SluglettPeter Moving Out of Place: Minorities in Middle Eastern Societies, 1800-1914 The Urban Social History of the Middle East 1750-1950 2008 Syracuse University of Syracuse Press 182 223

KrsticTijana Contested Conversions to Islam: Narratives of Religious Change in the Early Modern Ottoman Empire 2011 Palo Alto Stanford University Press

el-LeithyTamer MacGregorRichardSabraAdam Sufis, Copts, and the Politics of Piety: Moral Regulation in 14th-Century Upper Egypt The Development of Sufism in Mamluk Egypt 2006 Cairo Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale 75 120

LittleDonald Coptic Conversion to Islam under the Bahri Mamluks, 692-755/1293-1354 Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 1976 39 552 569

LuzNimrod Aspects of Islamization of Space and Society in Mamluk Jerusalem and Its Hinterland Mamluk Studies Review 2002 6 133 154

MakdisiUssama The Culture of Sectarianism: Community History and Violence in Nineteenth-Century Ottoman Lebanon 2000 Los Angeles University of California Press

MakdisiUssama Ottoman Orientalism American Historical Review 2005 107 768 796

MakdisiUssama Artillery of Heaven: American Missionaries and the Failed Conversion of the Middle East 2008 Ithaca Cornell University Press

MaʾozMoshe PolkWilliam R.ChambersRichard L. The Impact of Modernization on Syrian Politics and Society during the Early Tanzimat Period The Beginnings of Modernization in the Middle East: The Nineteenth Century 1968 Chicago University of Chicago Press 333 350

MarcusAbraham The Middle East on the Eve of Modernity: Aleppo in the Eighteenth Century 1989 New York Columbia University Press

MasʿadBulus QaraʿaliʿAbdullah Introduction Kitab mukhtasar al-shariʿa 1959 Beirut al-Maktaba al-Kathulikiyya

MastersBruce Christians in a Changing World The Cambridge History of Turkey 2008 Vol. 3 Cambridge Cambridge University Press The Later Ottoman Empire 1603-1839 chap. 13.

MastersBruce Origins of Western Economic Dominance in the Middle East: Mercantilism and the Islamic Economy in Aleppo 1600-1750 1988 Albany State University of New York Press

MastersBruce The 1850 Events in Aleppo: An Aftershock of Syria’s Incorporation into the Capitalist World System International Journal of Middle East Studies 1990 22 3 20

MastersBruce Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Arab World: The Roots of Sectarianism 2001 Cambridge University of Cambridge Press

McCarthyJustin The Population of Palestine: Population Statistics of the Late Ottoman Period and the Mandate 1990 New York Columbia University Press

MetcalfBarbara Islamic Revival in British India: Deoband 1860-1900 1982 Princeton Princeton University Press

al-MiknasiMuhammad b. ʿAbd al-Wahhab KabutMuhammad Bu Rihlat al-Miknasi 2003 Beirut al-Muʾassasa al-ʿArabiyya lil-Dirasat wa-l-Nashr

MillerDavid M. ClarkSamuelDonnellyJames S. The Armagh Troubles, 1784-95 Irish Peasants: Violence and Political Unrest 1780-1914 1983 Madison University of Wisconsin Press 155 191

MishaqaMikhaʾil RustumAsʿadShaqraSubhi Abu Muntakhabat min al-jawab ʿala iqitira al-ahbab 1955 Beirut

MishaqaMikhaʾil ThackstonWheeler Murder Mayhem Pillage and Plunder: The History of the Lebanon in the 18th and 19th Centuries 1988 Albany State University of New York Press

MouawadRay Jabre ChartouniCharles Qui sont les Maronites Blancs? Histoire sociétés et pouvoir aux Proche et Moyen Orients 2001 1 Paris Geuthner 123 235

al-MunayyarHananiya SarkisIghnatius Al-durr al-marsuf fi tarikh al-Shuf 1984 Beirut Jarrus

NirenbergDavid Communities of Violence: Persecution of Minorities in the Middle Ages 1996 Princeton Princeton University Press

NizamiTaufiq Ahmad Muslim Political Thought and Activity in India during the First Half of the Nineteenth Century 1969 Aligarh Three Mens Publications

NuʿaysaYusuf Mujtamaʿ madinat Dimashq (1772-1840) 1986 Damascus Dar Tlas

Ortaylıİlber MélikoffIrène Alevilik, Nusayrilik, ve Bab-ı Ali Tarihi ve külturel boyutlarıyla Türkiye’de Aleviler Bektaşiler Nusayriler 1999 Istanbul Ensar Neşriyat

PalmerR.R. The Age of Democratic Revolution: A Political History of Europe and America 1760-1800 1964 Princeton Princeton University Press

PamukŞevket A Monetary History of the Ottoman Empire 2000 Cambridge Cambridge University Press

PanzacDaniel International and Domestic Maritime Trade in the Ottoman Empire during the 18th Century International Journal of Middle East Studies 1992 24 189 206

PanzacDaniel La Peste dans l’Empire Ottoman 1700-1850 Leuven Peeters

PhilippThomas Class, Community, and Arab Historiography in the Early Nineteenth Century International Journal of Middle East Studies 1984 16 161 175

PhilippThomas The Syrians in Egypt 1725-1975 1985 Stuttgart F. Steiner

PhilippThomas Acre: The Rise and Fall of a Palestinian City 1730-1831 2001 New York Columbia University Press

PhilliouChristine Biography of an Empire: Governing Ottomans in an Age of Revolution 2010 Berkeley University of California Press

PolkWilliam R. The Opening of South Lebanon 1788-1840: A Study of the Impact of the West on the Middle East 1963 Cambridge MA Harvard University Press

ProusisTheophilus C. Bedlam in Beirut: A British Perspective in 1826 Chronos 2007 15 89 106

QaduraYusuf Tarikh madinat Ramallah 1954 New York Matbaʿat al-Huda

QuataertDonald Clothing Laws, State, and Society in the Ottoman Empire, 1720-1829 International Journal of Middle East Studies 1997 29 403 425

RafeqAbd al-Karim New Light on the 1860 Riots in Ottoman Damascus Die Welt des Islams 1988 28 412 430

RaymondAndré Artisans et commerçants au Caire au xviiie siècle 1973 Damascus Institut Français de Damas

RaymondAndré Égyptiens et français au Caire 1798-1801 1998 Cairo Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale

ReillyJames Inter-Confessional Relations in 19th-Century Syria: Damascus, Homs, and Hama Compared Islam and Muslim-Christian Relations 1996 7 213 224

RizviS.A.A. Shah Abd al-Aziz: Puritanism Sectarian Polemics and Jihad 1982 Canberra Maʿrifat Publishing House

el-RouayhebKhaled The Myth of the “Triumph of Fanaticism” in the Seventeenth-Century Ottoman Empire Die Welt des Islams 2008 48 196 221

RoyAsim “Living Together in Difference”: Religious Conflict and Tolerance in Pre-Colonial India as History and Discourse Journal of South Asian Studies 2010 33 33 60

SalibiKamal A House of Many Mansions: The History of Lebanon Reconsidered 1988 Berkeley University of California Press

SchilcherLinda Schatkowski Families in Politics: Damascene Factions and Estates of the 18th and 19th Centuries 1985 Stuttgart F. Steiner

SemerdjianElyse Naked Anxiety: Bathhouses, Nudity, and the Dhimmi Woman in 18th-Century Aleppo International Journal of Middle East Studies 2013 45 651 676

ShawkaKhalil Tarikh Bayt Lahm fi l-ʿahd al-ʿuthmani 1517-1917 2000 Bethlehem s.n.

al-ShidyaqTannus al-BustaniFuʾad Afram Akhbar al-aʾyan fi Jabal Lubnan 1970 2 vols Beirut Manshurat al-Jamiʿa al-Lubnaniyya

ShihabHaydar Ahmad ShibliAntuniyusʿAbdu KhalifaIghnatiyus Tarikh Ahmad Basha al-Jazzar lil-Amir Haydar Ahmad Shihab 1955 Beirut Maktabat Antwan

al-ShihabiAhmad Haydar RustumAsʿadal-BustaniFuʾad Afram Lubnan fi ʿahd al-umaraʾ al-Shihabiyin: Wa-huwa al-juzʾ al-thani wa-l-thalith min kitab al-ghurar al-hisan fi akhbar abnaʾ al-zaman 1969 3 vols Beirut al-Jamiʿa al-Lubnaniyya

ŞişmanCengiz Sabatay Sevi ve Sabataycılar: Mitler ve gerçekler 2007 Ankara Aşina Kitaplar

SkendiStavro Crypto-Christianity in the Balkan Area under the Ottomans Slavic Review 1967 26 227 246

ToumaToufic Paysans et institutions féodales chez les Druzes et les Maronite du Liban: Du xviie siècle á 1914 1986 2 vols Beirut Libraire Orientale

al-TurkNiqula SuwaydYasin Tamalluk jumhur al-fransawiyya al-aqtar al-misriyya wa-l-bilad al-shamiyya 1990 Beirut Dar al-Farabi

VarshneyAshutosh Ethnic Conflict and Civic Life: Hindus and Muslims in India 2002 New Haven Yale University Press

VolneyC.-F. Travels Through Egypt and Syria in the Years 1783 1784 and 1785 1788 2 vols London

van den BoogertMaurits The Capitulations and the Ottoman Legal System: Qadis Consuls and Beratlis in the 18th Century 2005 Leiden Brill

VollJohn Islam: Continuity and Change in the Modern World 1993 Syracuse University of Syracuse Press

von LeeuwenRichard Notables and Clergy in Mount Lebanon: The Khazin Sheikhs and the Maronite Church (1736-1840) 1994 Leiden Brill

WinterStefan The Shiites of Lebanon under Ottoman Rule 1516-1788 2010 Cambridge Cambridge University Press

WinterStefan PhilippThomasSchumannChristoph The Nusayris before the Tanzimat in the Eyes of Ottoman Provincial Administrators, 1804-34 From the Syrian Land to the States of Syria and Lebanon 2004 Würzburg Ergon 97 112

al-YazijiNasif al-BashaMuhammad KhalilGhannamRiyad Husayn Risala tarikhiyya fi ahwal Jabal Lubnan fi ʿahdihi al-iqtaʿi 2002 Beirut Dar Maʿn

YeʾorBet Islam and Dhimmitude: Where Civilizations Collide 2002 Madison NJ Farleigh Dickinson University Press

YıldırımOnur Ottoman Guilds as a Setting for Ethno-Religious Conflict: The Case of the Silk-Thread Spinners’ Guild in Istanbul International Review of Social History 2002 40 407 419

ZensRobert W. In the Name of the Sultan: Hacı Mustafa Pasha of Belgrade and Ottoman Provincial Rule in the Late 18th Century International Journal of Middle East Studies 2012 44 129 146

ZilfiMadeline A Medrese for the Palace: Ottoman Dynastic Legitimation in the Eighteenth Century Journal of the American Oriental Society 1993 113 184 191

ZilfiMadeline Discordant Revivalism in Seventeenth-Century Istanbul Journal of Near Eastern Studies 1986 4 251 271

ZilfiMadeline Women and Slavery in the Late Ottoman Empire 2010 New York Cambridge University Press

3

See e.g. S. KhalafLebanon’s Predicament (New York: Columbia University Press1987): chap. 3; G. Krämer “Moving Out of Place: Minorities in Middle Eastern Societies 1800-1914.” In The Urban Social History of the Middle East 1750-1950 ed. P. Sluglett (Syracuse: University of Syracuse Press 2008): 182-223; U. Makdisi The Culture of Sectarianism: Community History and Violence in Nineteenth-Century Ottoman Lebanon (Los Angeles: University of California Press 2000); M. Maʾoz “The Impact of Modernization on Syrian Politics and Society during the Early Tanzimat Period.” Ιn The Beginnings of Modernization in the Middle East: The Nineteenth Century ed. W.R. Polk and R.L. Chambers (Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1968): 333-50; B. Masters Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Arab World: the Roots of Sectarianism (Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press 2001); J. Reilly “Inter-Confessional Relations in 19th-Century Syria: Damascus Homs and Hama Compared.” Islam and Muslim-Christian Relations 7 (1996): 213-24.

16

B. ʿAbbud al-GhustawiBasaʾir al-zaman fi tarikh al-ʿallama al-Batriyark Yusuf Istifan (Beirut: Ghustawi1911): 81. The sight of throngs welcoming a Christian dignitary was not necessarily unseemly or upsetting to Muslim opinion. Entering Aleppo in 1659 the Orthodox patriarch of Damascus received the help of a detachment of Janissaries who beat back the crowd and opened a path for him; B. al-Halabi Nukhba min safrat al-Batriyark Makariyus al-Halabi ed. Q. al-Basha (Harisa Lebanon: Matbaʿat al-Qiddis Bulus 1912): 78-79.

20

Y. QaduraTarikh madinat Ramallah (New York: Matbaʿat al-Huda1954): 26-27.

25

J. Lewis BurckhardtTravels in Syria and the Holy Land (London: J. Murray1822): 197-98; Mishaqa Muntakhabat: 13; id. Murder: 23.

27

Abdul-Rahim Abu HusaynThe View from Istanbul: Ottoman Lebanon and the Druze Emirate (New York: I.B. Tauris2002): 12; W.R. Polk The Opening of South Lebanon 1788-1840: A Study of the Impact of the West on the Middle East (Cambridge ma: Harvard University Press 1963): 129; K. Salibi A House of Many Mansions: The History of Lebanon Reconsidered (Berkeley: University of California Press 1988): 103-105; R. von Leeuwen Notables and Clergy in Mount Lebanon: The Khazin Sheikhs and the Maronite Church (1736-1840) (Leiden: Brill 1994): 101.

38

E. Frangakis-SyrettThe Commerce of Smyrna in the Eighteenth Century (1700-1820) (Athens: Center for Asia Minor Studies1992): 59-60. One consular report no doubt inflated estimated that five thousand Christians had died in the riots.

62

Ş. PamukA Monetary History of the Ottoman Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press2000): chap. 12.

71

For a general discussion see B. MetcalfIslamic Revival in British India: Deoband 1860-1900 (Princeton: Princeton University Press1982); T. Ahmad Nizami Muslim Political Thought and Activity in India during the First Half of the Nineteenth Century (Aligarh: Three Mens Publications 1969).

72

P. CareyThe Power of Prophecy: Prince Dipanagara and the End of the Old Order in Java 1785-1855 (Leiden: Brill2007). On similar movements in Sumatra at the turn of the nineteenth century see C. Dobbin Islamic Revivalism in a Changing Peasant Economy: Central Sumatra 1784-1847 (London: Curzon Press 1983).

73

See e.g. M. GammerMuslim Resistance to the Tsar: Shamil and the Conquest of Chechnia and Daghestan (London: F. Cass1994); K. Karpat The Politicization of Islam: Reconstructing Identity State Faith and Community in the Late Ottoman State (Oxford: Oxford University Press 2001): chap. 1.

77

See B. Abu Manneh“Sheikh Murad al-Bukhari and the Expansion of the Naqshbandi-Mujaddidi Order in Istanbul.” Die Welt des Islams 53 (2013): 23-25; M. Zilfi Women and Slavery in the Late Ottoman Empire (New York: Cambridge University Press 2010): 51; ead. “A Medrese for the Palace: Ottoman Dynastic Legitimation in the Eighteenth Century.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 113 (1993): 189-91. On the possible role of economic factors in the sartorial campaigns see especially D. Quataert “Clothing Laws State and Society in the Ottoman Empire 1720-1829.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 29 (1997): 403-25. For evidence of heightened sectarian tensions among Istanbul guildsmen by the late eighteenth century see O. Yıldırım “Ottoman Guilds as a Setting for Ethno-Religious Conflict: The Case of the Silk-Thread Spinners’ Guild in Istanbul.” International Review of Social History 40 (2002): 407-19.

78

By 1799the Ottoman state had decided to arm Christian peasant militias against the refractory Janissary garrison of Belgrade. This experiment would lay the groundwork for the later Serbian revolt (1804-17) which ended in autonomy for the province. On the origins and consequences of this policy see R.W. Zens “In the Name of the Sultan: Hacı Mustafa Pasha of Belgrade and Ottoman Provincial Rule in the Late 18th Century.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 44 (2012): 129-46.

84

S.A.A. RizviShah Abd al-Aziz: Puritanism Sectarian Polemics and Jihad (Canberra: Maʿrifat Publishing House1982); J. Voll Islam: Continuity and Change in the Modern World (Syracuse: University of Syracuse Press 1993): 110-11.

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 100 100 28
Full Text Views 108 108 58
PDF Downloads 12 12 4
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0