Mapping Emotions, Constructing Feelings

Delhi in the 1840s

in Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient
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This article looks at the creation of feelings and their expression in Delhi in the 1840s and investigates the link between spaces and the emotions that they are built to evoke in the actors moving through them. Further, it investigates the intertwined relations between emotions and changing affective practices. For this, it draws on several archives that have long been viewed as belonging to different disciplines and proposes developing ways in which the interface between linguistic and non-linguistic sources can be explored, ranging from architecture—streets, buildings, and gardens—to miniatures and paintings, from census reports to poetry to topographical descriptions.

Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient

Journal d'Histoire Economique et Sociale de l'Orient

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3

This approach draws on M. Scheer, “Are Emotions a Kind of Practice (and Is That What Makes Them Have a History)? A Bourdieuian Approach to Understanding Emotion.” History and Theory 51(2012): 193-220. G. Althoff, “Ira Regis. Prolegomena to a History of Royal Anger.” In Anger’s Past. The Social Uses of an Emotion in the Middle Ages, ed. B. Rosenwein (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998): 59-75, takes them further by emphasizing the role of the media.

4

W. Reddy, The Navigation of Feeling: A Framework for the History of Emotions (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).

5

B. Gammerl, “Emotional Styles. Concepts and Challenges.” Rethinking History: The Journal of Theory and Practice 16 (2012): 161-75.

6

B. Latour, Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network Theory (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005); G. Böhme, “Atmosphere as the Fundamental Concept of a New Aesthetics.” Thesis Eleven 36 (1993): 113-26.

8

M.E. Aitken, The Intelligence of Tradition in Rajput Court Painting (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010).

11

C. Jacob, “Toward a Cultural History of Cartography.” Imago Mundi 48 (1996): 191-8; E. Casti, “Towards a Theory of Interpretation. Cartographic Semiosis.” Cartographia 40 (2005): 1-16.

15

M.H. Edney, Mapping an Empire. The Geographical Construction of British India, 1765-1843 (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999).

17

C. Dadlani, “The ‘Palais Indiens’ Collection of 1774. Representing Mughal Architecture in Late Eighteenth Century India.” Ars Orientalis 39 (2010): 175-97. For an interpretation of the map and the identification of the buildings depicted, see S. Gole, “Three Maps of Shahjahanabad.” South Asian Studies 4 (1988): 13-27.

20

J.P. Losty, Delhi 360°: Mazhar Ali Khan’s View from the Lahore Gate (Delhi: Roli Books, 2012).

25

S. Blake, Shahjahanabad: The Sovereign City in Mughal India (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).

30

S. Sharma, “The City of Beauties in the Indo-Persian Poetic Landscape.” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 24 (2004): 18-26.

32

Khan, Asar us Sanadid, 2: 30.

38

Ghalib, “Taqriz.” In Khan, Asar us Sanadid, 4: 231-3.

40

M. Archer and T. Falk, India Revealed: The Art and Adventures of James and William Fraser 1801-43 (London: Cassell, 1989); see also the miniatures forming part of J. Skinner, Tashrih ul aqwam, British Library, ms Add. 27, 255.

42

N. Rustomji, The Garden and the Fire: Heaven and Hell in Islamic Culture (New York: Columbia University Press, 2009).

44

C. Clunas, Fruitful Sites: Garden Culture in Ming Dynasty China (Durham: Duke University Press, 1996). This argument was taken up and further developed for the gardens of the Deccan in Garden and Landscape Practices in Pre-Colonial India: Histories from the Deccan, eds. D. Ali and E. Flatt (London: Routledge, 2012). For the economic importance of the gardens during the height of the Mughal Empire, see I. Habib, “Notes on the Economic and Social Aspects of Mughal Gardens.” In Mughal Gardens: Sources, Places, Representations and Prospects, eds. J.L. Wescoat and J. Wolschke-Buhlmann (Washington dc: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1996): 127-37.

54

C. Asher, Architecture of Mughal India (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992): chap. 7.

57

For descriptions from 1830, see Pernau and Jaffery, Information: 295-338.

Figures

  • Map of Delhi, ca. 1850 (detail). British Library, oioc x/1659.
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  • Map of Chandni Chauk (detail).Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
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  • Sita Ram, View of the Chandni Chauk, 1815. British Library.
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  • Mazhar Ali Khan, Delhi panorama, 1842 (detail). British Library.
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  • Procession of Akbar Shah ii. British Library.
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  • Re-Creation of the Mughal Emperor Akbar ii Receiving A European Officer. The San Diego Museum of Art, Edwin Binney 3rd Collection.
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  • Durbar of Akbar ii, c. 1811-15. Cincinnati Art Museum, Ohio. The William T. and Louise Taft Semple Collection/Bridgeman Images.
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  • Disguised Akbar with Tansen Visit Swami Haridas, ca. 1760. National Museum India, Delhi.
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  • The Jharna in Mahrauli. British Library.
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