Ijtihād in Bukhara: Central Asian Jadidism and Local Genealogies of Cultural Change

In: Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient

The dominant narrative about Jadidism presents three interpretive problems that complicate the historian’s task to situate cultural change in nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century Central Asia within a broader and more accurate reading of the history of the region. My argument is that Jadidism represents the last stage in the evolution of a milieu of Bukharan scholars who were concerned with the forms of governance adopted by the Manghit rulers, which constrained the powers of the ʿulamāʾ. I suggest that Jadidism has a historical meaning but one that differs from what historians have so far conferred upon it. One should retain Jadidism as a historiographical category only if one eliminates a narrative that constructs an artificial opposition between technology and theology and presents cultural change in modern Central Asia as a by-product solely of the encounter with the West.

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    S. Levi“The Ferghana Valley and the Crossroads of World History: the Rise of Khoqand, 1709-1822.” Journal of Global History 2/2 (2007): 226. I owe this observation to one of my anonymous reviewers.

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    A. HaugenThe Establishment of National Republics in Soviet Central Asia (London: Palgrave Macmillan2003): 59-66. A.L. Edgar, Tribal Nation: The Making of Soviet Turkmenistan (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006): 32-3; A. Khalid, Making Uzbekistan: Nation, Empire, and Revolution in the Early ussr (Ithaca, ny: Cornell University Press, 2015).

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    S. KellerTo Moscow, Not Mecca: The Soviet Campaign against Islam in Central Asia, 1917-1941 (London: Praeger2001): 75.

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    See, further, M. KampThe New Woman in Uzbekistan. Islam, Modernity, and Unveiling Under Communism (Seattle and London: University of Washington Press2006): 32-52.

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    O’. SultonovMuhammad Solihkho’ja va uning “Tarikhi jadidayi Toshkand” asari (Tashkent: O’zbekiston2007): 16.

  • 60

    On this saint, see A.A. Semenov“Tashkentskii Shaikh Khavand Takhur (Shaikh Antaur) i pripisyvaemyi emu kuliakh.” Protokoly Zasedanii i Soobshcheniia Chlenov Turkestanskogo Kruzhka Liubitelei Arkheologii 20 (1916): 25.

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    P. StronskiTashkent: Forging a Soviet City, 1930-1966 (Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh University Press2010): 29.

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    W. Fierman“Identity, Symbolism, and the Politics of Language in Central Asia.” Europe-Asia Studies 61/7 (2009): 1209, 1211.

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    “In the 1920s and early 1930sthese were not merely subaltern indigenous elites dancing to Moscow’s tune; they were dynamic leaders in their own right who made common cause with the Bolsheviks, seeing in them allies in cultural reform.” B. Loring, “ ‘Colonizers with Party Cards’: Soviet Internal Colonialism in Central Asia.” Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 15/1 (2014): 82.

  • 75

    S.A. Dudoignon“From Revival to Mutation: the Religious Personnel of Islam in Tajikistan, from de-Stalinization to independence (1955-91).” Central Asian Survey 30/1 (2011): 53-80.

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  • 82

    D. DeWeese“Review of Islam after Communism: Religion and Politics in Central Asia, by Adeeb Khalid (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007).” Journal of Islamic Studies 19/1 (2008): 138, 140.

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  • 83

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  • 84

    S.A. Dudoignon“Djadidisme, mirasisme, islamisme.” Cahiers du Monde Russe 37/1-2 (1996): 23.

  • 88

    On this topic, see also A. Khalid“The Bukharan People’s Soviet Republic in the Light of Muslim Sources.” Die Welt des Islams 50/3-4 (2010): 339-42.

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  • 91

    See, e.g., P. Sartori“When a Mufti Turned Islamism into Political Pragmatism: Sadreddin-Khan and the Struggle for an Independent Turkestan.” Cahiers d’Asie Centrale 15-16 (2007): 118-39. See also A. Khalid, “The Fascination of Revolution: Central Asian Intellectuals, 1917-1927.” In Empire, Islam, and Politics in Central Eurasia, ed. T. Uyama (Sapporo: Slavic Research Center, 2007): 144-5.

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  • 112

    M. Fadel“The Social Logic of Taqlid and the Rise of the Mukhtasar.” Islamic Law and Society 3/2 (1996): 193-233; W. Hallaq, Authority, Continuity and Change in Islamic Law (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001).

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