The Ur-Text of Jadidism: Abū Naṣr Qūrṣāwī’s Irshād and the Historiography of Muslim Modernism in Russia

in Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

The conventional historiography of Jadidism begins with Abū l-Naṣr Qūrṣāwī’s (1776-1812) rejection of taqlīd and embrace of ijtihād, which was furthered by Shihāb al-Dīn Marjānī (1818-89), leading to the flowering of Jadidism proper at the beginning of the twentieth century. Beginning in the late 1950s, Qūrṣāwī’s Irshād li-l-ʿibād was put forward by Tatar academics seeking to support the narrative as the specific source of his views on ijtihād. The discussion of ijtihād in this text does not, however, conform to the Jadids’ conception of it, and the attempts to locate Jadidist ideals in it rely on highly anachronistic and specious interpretations. Based on the study of the relevant Soviet historiography and its sources, I argue that this narrative is not supported by the works of Qūrṣāwī or Marjānī but comes ultimately from Jadidist writings from the 1920s.

The Ur-Text of Jadidism: Abū Naṣr Qūrṣāwī’s Irshād and the Historiography of Muslim Modernism in Russia

in Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient

Sections

References

AbdullinIakhia. G. Tatarskaia prosvetitel’skaia mysl’ 1976 Kazan Tatarskoe Knizhnoe Izd-vo

AbdullinIakhia. G. Iz istorii tatarskoi obschestvennoi mysli 1979 Kazan IIaLI, AN SSSR

AbdullinIakhia. G.KhairullinA. Mäg”rifätchelek khäräkäte karlıgachı Qazan Utları 1977 1 144 145

AlgarHamidRasulevShaykh Zaynullah GrossJo-Ann The Last Great Naqshbandi Shaykh of the Volga-Urals Region Muslims in Central Asia: Expressions of Identity and Change 1992 Durham, NC Duke University Press 112 133

Ali-KaramaliShaistaDunneFiona The Ijtihād Controversy Arab Law Quarterly 1994 9 3 238 257

ArsharuniA.M.GabidullinKh. Ocherki panislamizma i pantiurkizma 1931 Moscow Izd-vo Bezbozhnik

AshurovG. AdleChahryar Intellectual and Political Ferment History of Civilizations of Central Asia 2005 vol. 6 Paris UNESCO 185 212 Towards the Contemporary Period: From the Mid-Nineteenth to the End of the Twentieth Century

ʿAynīṢadr al-Dīn Tārīkh-i amīrān-i manghitīya-yii Bukhārā 1923 Tashkent Turkestanskoe Gosudarstvennoe Izd-vo

ʿAynīṢadr al-Dīn AiniSadriddin Ta”rikhi inqilobi Bukhoro 1926/1987 Dushanbe Adib

ʿAynīṢadr al-Dīn Tārīkh-i inqilāb-i fikrī dar Bukhārā 1381/2002 Tehran Sorush

ʿAbdallāhBaṭṭāl Qāzān tūrklarī: tārīkhī wa-siyāsī gūrūshlar 1925 Istanbul Āmidī Maṭbaʾasī

BatyevS.G. Tatarskii dzhadidizm i ego èvoliutsiia Istoriia sssr 1964 4 53 63

BennigsenAlexandreBroxupMarie The Islamic Threat to the Soviet State 1983 London Croom Helm

BobrovnikovVladimir LievenDominic Islam in the Russian Empire The Cambridge History of Russia 2006 vol. 2 Cambridge Cambridge University Press 202 226 Imperial Russia 1689-1917

BustanovAl’frid K. Knizhnaia kul’tura sibirskikh musul’man 2013 Moscow Izd-vo Mardzhani

BustanovAlfridKemperMichael BustanovAlfridKemperMichael From Mirasism to Euro-Islam: The Translation of Islamic Legal Debates into Tatar Secular Cultural Heritage Islamic Authority and the Russian Language: Studies on Texts from European Russia the North Caucasus and West Siberia 2012 Amsterdam Pegasus 29 54

Carrère d’EncausseHélène HoareQuentin Islam and the Russian Empire: Reform and Revolution in Central Asia 1988 London I.B. Tauris Paris: A. Colin. 1966 in French

DallalAhmad The Origins and Objectives of Islamic Revivalist Thought, 1750-1850 Journal of the American Oriental Society 1993 113 3 341 359

DallalAhmad Appropriating the Past: Twentieth-Century Reconstruction of Pre-Modern Islamic Thought Islamic Law and Society 2000 7 3 325 358

DavletshinTamurbek Sovetskii Tatarstan: Teoriia i praktika leninskoi natsional’noi politiki 1974 London Our World

DevletNadir Rusya türklerinin milli mücadele tarihi (1905-1917) 1985 Ankara Türk Kültürünnü Araştirma Enstitüsü

DeWeeseDevin KemperMichaelConermannStephan Ahmad Yasavi and the Divan-i hikmat in Soviet scholarship The Heritage of Soviet Oriental Studies 2011 New York Routledge 262 290

DinorshoevM. Philosophy, Logic and Cosmology History of Civilizations of Central Asia 2003 vol. 5 Paris UNESCO 747 758 Development in Contrast: From the Sixteenth to the Mid-Nineteenth Century

DudoignonStéphane A. Djadidisme, mirasisme, islamisme Cahiers du Monde Russe 1996 37 1-2 12 40

DudoignonStéphane A. KocaoğluTimur Qadimiya as a Historiographical Category: The Question of Social and Ideological Cleavages between “Reformists” and “Traditionalists” among the Muslims of Russia and Central Asia, in the Early 20th Century Reform Movements and Revolutions in Turkistan 2001 Haarlem SOTA 159 177

DudoignonStéphane A. TsugitakaSato Faction Struggles among the Bukharan Ulama during the Colonial, the Revolutionary and the Early Soviet Periods (1868-1929): A Paradigm for History Writing? Muslim Societies: Historical and Comparative Aspects 2004 New York RoutledgeCurzon 62 96

DudoignonStéphane A. DudoignonStéphane A. Echoes to Al-Manar among the Muslims of the Russian Empire: A Preliminary Research Note on Riza al-Din b. Fakhr al-Din and the Šura (1908-1918) Intellectuals in the Modern Islamic World: Transmission Transformation Communication 2006 London Routledge 85 116

FadelMohammed The Social Logic of Taqlid and the Rise of the Mukhtasar Islamic Law and Society 1996 3 2 193 233

Fakhr al-DīnRiḍāʾ al-Dīn Āthār 1903 Orenburg Tipografiia G.I. Karimova pt. 3

FedtkeGero von KügelgenAnkeKemperMichaelFrankAllen J. Jadids, Young Bukharans, Communists and the Bukharan Revolution: From an Ideological Debate in the Early Soviet Union Muslim Culture in Russia and Central Asia from the 18th to the Early 20th Centuries 1998 vol. 2 Berlin Klaus Schwarz 483 512 Inter-Regional and Inter-Ethnic Relations

FrankAllen J. Muslim Religious Institutions in Imperial Russia: The Islamic World of Novouzensk District and the Kazakh Inner Horde 1780-1910 2001 Leiden Brill

FrankAllen J. Islamic Shrine Catalogues and Communal Geography in the Volga-Ural Region: 1788-1917 Journal of Islamic Studies 1996 7 2 265 286

FrankAllen J. Bukhara and the Muslims of Russia: Sufism Education and the Paradox of Islamic Prestige 2012 Leiden Brill

GainullinM.Kh. Tatar ädäbiyatı xix yöz 1957 Kazan Tatarstan Kitap Näshriyatı

GainullinM.Kh. Borıngı tatar ädäbiyatı 1963 Kazan Tatarstan Kitap Näshriyatı

GainullinM.Kh. Tatarskaia literatura i publitsistika nachala xx veka 1966 Kazan Tatarskoe Knizhnoe Izd-vo

GainullinM.Kh. Tatarskaia literatura i publitsistika nachala xx veka 1983 2nd ed. Kazan Tatarstan Knizhnoe Izd-vo

GesinkIndira Falk “Chaos on the Earth”: Subjective Truths versus Communal Unity in Islamic Law and the Rise of Militant Islam The American Historical Review 2003 108 3 710 733

GesinkIndira Falk Islamic Reform and Conservatism: Al-Azhar and the Evolution of Modern Sunni Islam 2009 London Tauris

GubaidullinG. K voprosu ob ideologii Gasprinskogo (1929) Gasırlar Awazı/Ekho Vekov 1998 4 3-4 98 118

HahnGordon M. Russia’s Islamic Threat 2007 New Haven Yale University Press

HajSamira Reconfiguring Islamic Tradition: Reform Rationality and Modernity 2009 Stanford, CA Stanford University Press

HallaqWael Authority Continuity and Change in Islamic Law 2001 New York Cambridge University Press

HaykelBernard Revival and Reform in Islam: The Legacy of Muhammad al-Shawkani 2003 Cambridge Cambridge University Press

IskhakovD.M. Problemy stanovleniia i transformatsiia tatarskoi natsii 1997 Kazan Master Lain

IskhakovD.M. MukhametshinR.M. Dzhadidizm Islam v srednem povolzh’e: Istoriia i sovremennost’: Ocherki 2001 Kazan Master Lain 128 135

IuzeevAidar Mirovozzrenie Sh. Mardzhani i arabo-muṣūl’manskaia filosofiia 1992 Kazan RAN IIaLI

IuzeevAidar YuzeevAidar JohnsonJulie Islam and the Emergence of Tatar National Identity Religion and Identity in Modern Russia: The Revival of Orthodoxy and Islam 2005 Burlington, VT Ashgate 91 104

JacksonSherman Taqlīd, Legal Scaffolding and the Scope of Legal Injunctions in Post-Formative Theory: Mutlaq and ʿAmm in the Jurisprudence of Shihab al-Din al-Qarafi Islamic Law and Society 1996 3 2 165 192

JacksonSherman Islamic Law and the State: The Constitutional Jurisprudence of Shihab al-Din al-Qarafi 1996 Leiden Brill

KanlidereAhmet Reform within Islam: The Tajdid and Jadid Movement Among the Kazan Tatars (1809-1917): Conciliation or Conflict? 1997 Istanbul Eren

KanlidereAhmet The Trends of Thought among the Tatars and Bashkirs: Religious Reformism and Secular Jadidism vs. Qadimism (1883-1910) Journal of Central Asian and Caucasian Studies 2010 5 9 48 63

al-KawtharīMuḥammad Zāhid Maqālāt al-Kawtharī 1388/1968 Cairo Maṭbaʿat al-Anwār 1953

al-KawtharīMuḥammad Zāhid Ḥusn al-taqāḍī fī sīrat al-Imām Abī Yūsuf al-Qāḍī wa-ṣafḥa min Ṭabaqāt al-fuqahāʾ Homs R. Ḥākimī

KemperMichael Entre Boukhara et la Moyenne-Volga: ʿAbd an-Nasir al-Qūrṣāwī (1776-1812) en conflit avec les oulémas traditionalistes Cahiers du Monde Russe 1996 37 1-2 41 51

KemperMichael Sufis und Gelehrte in Tatarien und Baschkirien 1789-1889: Der islamische Diskurs unter russischer Herrschaft 1998 Berlin Klaus Schwarz

KemperMichael von KügelgenAnkeMuminovAširbekKemperMichael Şihabaddin al-Marğani über Abu n-Nasr al-Qūrṣāwīs Konflikt mit den Gelehrten bucharas Muslim Culture in Russia and Central Asia 2000 vol. 3 Berlin Klaus Schwarz 353 383 Arabic Persian and Turkic Manuscripts (15th-19th Centuries)

KemperMichael The Soviet Discourse on the Origin and Class Character of Islam, 1923-1933 Die Welt des Islams 2009 49 1 48

KhabutdinovA.Iu Lidery natsii 2003 Kazan Tatarskoe Knizhnoe Izd-vo

KhairullinA.N. AbdullinIa. Mesto G. Kursavi v istorii obschestvennoi mysli Iz istorii tatarskoi obschestvennoi mysli 1979 Kazan IIaLI, AN SSSR

KhakimovRafael Islam’s Modernization: How Plausible Is It? Russia in Global Affairs 2003 2 3 126 139

KhakimovRafael Gde nasha Mekka?: manifest evroislama 2003 Kazan Magarif

KhakimovRafael Dzhadidizm (reformirovannyi Islam) 2010 Kazan Institut Istorii AN RT

KhalidAdeeb The Politics of Muslim Cultural Reform: Jadidism in Central Asia 1998 Berkeley University of California Press

KhalidAdeeb What Jadidism Was, and What It Wasn’t: The Historiographical Adventures of a Term Central Eurasian Studies Review 2006 5 2 3 6

KlimovichLiutsian Islam v tsarskoi Rossii: Ocherki 1936 Moscow Gosudarstvennoe Antireligioznoe Izd-vo

LapidusIra A History of Islamic Societies 2002 2nd ed. Cambridge Cambridge University Press

LazzeriniEdward Ğadidism at the Turn of the Twentieth Century: A View from Within Cahiers du Monde Russe et Soviétique 1975 16 2 245 277

LazzeriniEdward Tatarovedenie and the “New Historiography” in the Soviet Union: Revising the Interpretation of the Tatar-Russian Relationship Slavic Review 1981 40 4 625 635

LazzeriniEdward Ethnicity and the Uses of History: The Case of the Volga Tatars and Jadidism Central Asian Survey 1982 1 2 61 69

MaraşIbrahim Türk Dünyasinda Dinî Yenileşme (1850-1917) 2002 Istanbul Ötüken

MardinŞerif ButterworthCharlesZartmanI. William An Islamic Political Formula in Transformation: Islam, Identity, and Nationalism in the History of the Volga Tatars Between the State and Islam 2001 Cambridge Cambridge University Press 59 89

MarjānīShihāb al-Dīn Nāẓūrat al-ḥaqq fī farḍiyyat al-ʿishāʾ wa-in lam yaghib al-shafaq 1870 Kazan n.p

MarjānīShihāb al-Dīn Kitāb al-Ḥikma al-bāligha al-jāniyya fī sharḥ al-ʿaqāʾid al-ḥanafiyya 1888 Kazan Maṭbaʿat Wiyāchislāf

von MendeGerhard Der Nationale Kampf der Russlandtürken 1936 Berlin Weidmannsche Buchhandlung

MohammatshinRafyq DudoignonStéphane A. The Tatar Intelligentsia and the Clergy, 1917-1937 Devout Societies vs. Impious States?: Transmitting Islamic Learning in Russia Central Asia and China through the Twentieth Century 2004 Berlin Klaus Schwarz 29 38

QūrṣāwīAbū l-Naṣr ʿAbd al-Naṣīr Al-Sharḥ al-jadīd li-l-ʿAqāʾid al-nasafiyya St. Petersburg, Institut Vostochnykh Rukopisei MS A1241: fols. 92b-147a

QūrṣāwīAbū l-Naṣr ʿAbd al-Naṣīr Al-Irshād li-l-ʿibād 1903 Kazan Lito-Tipografiia I.N. Kharitonova Reprinted with introduction and Russian translation as Abu-n-Nasr ʿAbd an-Nasir al-Kursavi Nastavlenie liudei na put’ istiny introd. and trans. Gul’nara Idiiatullina. Kazan: Tatarskoe Knizhnoe Izd-vo 2005

Azade-AyşeRorlich The Volga Tatars: A Profile in National Resilience 1986 Stanford, CA Hoover Institution Press

ʿAbdraḥmānSaʿdī Tātār adabiyyātī tārīkhī 1926 Kazan Tātārstān Dawlat Nashriyātī Bāsmāsī

ḌiyāʾṢadr-i ShukurovRustam AllworthEdwardShakuriMuhammadjonShukurovRustam The Personal History of a Bukharan Intellectual: The Diary of Muḥammad-Sharif-i Sadr-i Ziya 2004 Leiden Brill

ḌiyāʾṢadr-i Shakūrī BukhārāyīMuḥammadjān Rūznāma-yi Ṣadr-i Ḍiyāʾ 1382/2003 Tehran Markaz Asnād wa Khadamāt-i Pizhūhishī

al-SanūsīMuḥammad ʿAlī ibn GhalbūnM.A. Īqāẓ al-wasnān fī l-ʿamal bi-l-ḥadīth wa-l-Qurʾān al-Majmūʿa al-mukhtāra 1990 Manchester n.p

SchamilogluUli KocaogluTimur Ictihad or Millat? Reflections on Bukhara, Kazan, and the Legacy of Russian Orientalism Reform Movements and Revolutions in Turkistan: 1900-1924 2001 Haarlem SOTA 347 368

al-ShawkānīMuḥammad b. ʿAlī Al-Qawl al-mufīd fī adallat al-ijtihād wa-l-taqlīd 1411/1991 Cairo Dār al-Kutub al-Miṣrī and Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-Lubnānī

al-ShawkānīMuḥammad b. ʿAlī Al-Irshād al-fuḥūl ilā taḥqīq al-ḥaqq min ʿilm al-uṣūl Riyadh Dār al-Fāḍila 2 vols n.d.

ShorishM. Mobin Lemercier-QuelquejayCh.VeinsteinG.WimbushS.E. Traditional Islamic Education in Central Asia prior to 1917 Passé Turco-Tatar Présent Soviétique: études offertes à Alexandre Bennigsen 1986 Paris Peeters 317 344

SomuncuoğluB. Tümen Kazan Dergisi (1970-1980) Türkiye Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi 2009 13 1 71 90

SpannausNathan Formalism, Puritanicalism, Traditionalism: Approaches to Islamic Legal Reasoning in the 19th-Century Russian Empire The Muslim World 2014 104 3 354 378

SpannausNathan Šihab al-Din al-Marğani on the Divine Attributes: A Study in Kalam in the 19th Century Arabica 2015 62 74 98

SpannausNathan Preserving Islamic Tradition: Abu Nasr Qūrṣāwī and the Beginnings of Modern Reformism New York Oxford University Press Forthcoming

TahirMahmud Abunnasir Kursavi 1776-1812 Central Asian Survey 1989 8 2 155 158

TemirAhmet Abdunnasir Kursavi (1771/1772 [sic]-1812) Kazan Dergisi 1971 4 44 45

UrazaevF.Ia Mekhanizmy sokhraneniia ėtnokul’turnoi identichnosti tatarskogo naroda (konets xx-nachalo xxi vv.) 2012 Kazan Izd-vo IaZ

ValidovDzhamaliutdin Ocherk istorii obrazovannosti i literatury Tatar 1923 Moscow and Petrograd Gosudarstvennoe Izd-vo

ValidovDzhamaliutdin Dzh. Validi: “U menia raznoglasiia s sovvlast’iu” Gasırlar Awazı/Ekho Vekov 1996 2 1 2

VikørKnut Sufi and Scholar on the Desert Edge: Muhammad b. ʿAli al-Sanusi and His Brotherhood 1995 London Hurst

WeismannItzchak The Naqshbandiyya: Orthodoxy and Activism in a Worldwide Sufi Tradition 2007 New York Routledge

WeissBernard Interpretation in Islamic Law: The Theory of Ijtihād The American Journal of Comparative Law 1978 26 2

YemelianovaGalina M. Russia and Islam: A Historical Survey 2002 New York Palgrave

ZamanMuhammad Qasim Modern Islamic Thought in a Radical Age 2012 Cambridge Cambridge University Press

ZarconeThierry Philosophie et théologie chez les djadids [La question du raisonnement indépendant (iǧtihad)] Cahiers du Monde Russe 1996 37 1-2 53 63

ZenkovskySerge A. Pan-Turkism and Islam in Russia 1960 Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press

ZysowAron WeissBernard G. Muʿtazilism and Maturidism in Hanafi Legal Theory Studies in Islamic Legal Theory 2002 Leiden Brill 235 266

1

R. Khakimov“Islam’s Modernization: How Plausible Is It?” Russia in Global Affairs 2/3 (2003): 126-39; id. Gde nasha Mekka?: manifest evroislama (Kazan: Magarif 2003); id. Dzhadidizm (reformirovannyi Islam) (Kazan: Institut Istorii an rt 2010).

7

A. IuzeevFilosofskaia mysl’ tatarskogo naroda (Kazan: Tatarstan Knizhnoe Izd-vo2007).

11

T. DavletshinSovetskii Tatarstan: Teoriia i praktika leninskoi natsional’noi politiki (London: Our World1974).

12

Ia.G. AbdullinTatarskaia prosvetitel’skaia mysl’ (Kazan: Tatarskoe Knizhnoe Izd-vo1976).

21

Mahmud Tahir“Abunnasir Kursavi 1776-1812.” Central Asian Survey 8/2 (1989): 155-8 here 156.

24

E.g. T. Zarcone“Philosophie et théologie chez les djadids [La question du raisonnement indépendant (iǧtihad)].” Cahiers du Monde Russe 37/1-2 (1996): 53-63; Stéphane A. Dudoignon “Echoes to Al-Manar among the Muslims of the Russian Empire: A Preliminary Research Note on Riza al-Din b. Fakhr al-Din and the Šura (1908-1918)” in Intellectuals in the Modern Islamic World: Transmission Transformation Communication ed. Stéphane A. Dudoignon et al. (London: Routledge 2006): 85-116.

25

Dzhamaliutdin ValidovOcherk istorii obrazovannosti i literatury Tatar (Moscow and Petrograd: Gosudarstvennoe Izd-vo1923).

27

Sadriddin AiniTa”rikhi inqilobi Bukhoro (1926, Dushanbe: Adib1987).

31

A.M. Arsharuni and Kh. GabidullinOcherki panislamizma i pantiurkizma v Rossii (Moscow: Izd-vo Bezbozhnik1931): esp. 9-10.

32

L. KlimovichIslam v tsarskoi Rossii: Ocherki (Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe Antireligioznoe Izd-vo1936): 180; cf. Saʿdī Tātār adabiyyātī tārīkhī: 67.

33

Cf. M. Kemper“The Soviet Discourse on the Origin and Class Character of Islam, 1923-1933.” Die Welt des Islams 49 (2009): 1-48.

34

E. Lazzerini“Ethnicity and the Uses of History: the Case of the Volga Tatars and Jadidism.” Central Asian Survey 1/2 (1982): 61-9 here 62-4.

35

S.G. Batyev“Tatarskii dzhadidizm i ego ėvoliutsiia.” Istoriia sssr 4 (1964): 53-63.

40

S.A. Dudoignon“Djadidisme, mirasisme, islamisme.” Cahiers du Monde Russe 37/1-2 (1996): 12-40; A. Bustanov and M. Kemper “From Mirasism to Euro-Islam: The Translation of Islamic Legal Debates into Tatar Secular Cultural Heritage.” In Islamic Authority and the Russian Language: Studies on Texts from European Russia the North Caucasus and West Siberia ed. A. Bustanov and M. Kemper (Amsterdam: Pegasus 2012): 29-54.

41

E. Lazzerini“Tatarovedenie and the ‘New Historiography’ in the Soviet Union: Revising the Interpretation of the Tatar-Russian Relationship.” Slavic Review 40/4 (1981): 625-35; id. “Ethnicity and the Uses of History”: 66-7.

46

A. Temir“Abdunnasir Kursavi (1771/1772 [sic] -1812).” Kazan Dergisi 4 (1971): 44-5.

55

Ia.G. Abdullin and A. Khairullin“Mäg”rifätchelek khäräkäte karlıgachı.” Qazan Utları 1 (1977): 144-5. Qazan Utları called Sovet ädäbiyatı before 1965 was a Tatar-language journal that addressed both popular and academic audiences and it became one of the major published venues for mirasism; Lazzerini “Tatarovedenie and the ‘New Historiography’ ”: 627; Bustanov and Kemper “From Mirasism to Euro-Islam”: 36-7.

60

D.M. IskhakovProblemy stanovleniia i transformatsiia tatarskoi natsii (Kazan: Master Lain1997): 17. Iskhakov takes his account here from Rorlich Davletshin and Validov.

61

A. KhalidThe Politics of Muslim Cultural Reform: Jadidism in Central Asia (Berkeley: University of California Press1998): 101-2. Although Khalid’s study is generally aligned with the Jadidist perspective he questions the validity of this historiographical narrative for Central Asian Jadidism specifically while noting elsewhere the narrative’s marked teleological character; Adeeb Khalid “What Jadidism Was and What It Wasn’t: The Historiographical Adventures of a Term.” Central Eurasian Studies Review 5/2 (2006): 3-6.

62

A.J. FrankMuslim Religious Institutions in Imperial Russia: The Islamic World of Novouzensk District and the Kazakh Inner Horde 1780-1910 (Leiden: Brill2001); id. “Islamic Shrine Catalogues and Communal Geography in the Volga-Ural Region: 1788-1917.” Journal of Islamic Studies 7/2 (1996): 265-86.

64

M. Kemper“Entre Boukhara et la Moyenne-Volga: ʿAbd an-Nasir al-Qursawi (1776-1812) en conflit avec les oulémas traditionalistes.” Cahiers du Monde Russe 37/1-2 (1996): 41-51.

69

See S. Jackson“Taqlid, Legal Scaffolding and the Scope of Legal Injunctions in Post-Formative Theory: Mutlaq and ʿAmm in the Jurisprudence of Shihab al-Din al-Qarafi.” Islamic Law and Society 3/2 (1996): 165-192; id. Islamic Law and the State: The Constitutional Jurisprudence of Shihāb al-Dīn al-Qarāfī (Leiden: Brill 1996); M. Fadel “The Social Logic of Taqlid and the Rise of the Mukhtasar.” Islamic Law and Society 3/2 (1996): 193-233; W. Hallaq Authority Continuity and Change in Islamic Law (New York: Cambridge University Press 2001).

74

B. Weiss“Interpretation in Islamic Law: The Theory of Ijtihad.” The American Journal of Comparative Law 26/2 (1978): 199-212 here 201.

113

Cf. A.J. FrankBukhara and the Muslims of Russia: Sufism Education and the Paradox of Islamic Prestige (Leiden: Brill2012).

115

A.Iu. KhabutdinovLidery natsii (Kazan: Tatarskoe knizhnoe izd-vo2003): 11-15.

Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 26 26 13
Full Text Views 11 11 11
PDF Downloads 7 7 7
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0