The Local History of Kababir in Haifa: Constructing a Narrative of Uniqueness

in Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient
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The neighborhood of Kababir in Haifa is known as the center of the Ahmadiyya community in the Middle East. It was established in the nineteen century as a hamlet, and was later annexed to the municipality of Haifa. The article traces the history of Kababir since its establishment until 1964 and observes the accelerated transition from rural to urban life at the periphery of an expanding city. The story of Kababir thus illustrates one path to urbanism within Palestinian society. Based on local written and oral sources the article also shows the role of collective memory in interpreting past events and constructing cultural identity.

The Local History of Kababir in Haifa: Constructing a Narrative of Uniqueness

in Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient

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References

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1

ʿA. ʿOdehAl-Kabābīr Baladī (Shafaʿamr: Dar al-Mashriq1980).

4

A. Confino“Collective Memory and Cultural History: Problems of Method.” American Historical Review 105/2 (1997): 1386-1403.

6

Dr. Eberhard Graf von MülinenBeiträge zur Kenntnis des Karmels (Leipzig: Baedeker1908). For this article I used the Hebrew annotated translation: A. Geva Kleinberger and Y. Ben Artzi Ha-Carmel shel von Mülinen (Jerusalem: Magness Press 2013): 168.

7

D. GrossmanHa-Kfar ha-A‘rvi u-Vnotav: Tahalikhim ba-Yishuv ha-A‘rvi be-Eretz Israel ha-Othmanit (Jerusalem: Yad Ben Zvi1994): 13 44-5.

15

G. Schumacher“Population List of the Liva Akka.” Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement 19/3 (1887): 178. On Schumacher and the projects entrusted to him see Y. Ben Artzi “Gottlieb Schumacher–Mapot ve-Tokhniot le-Pituah Heifa be-Shalhey ha-Me’a ha-19.” Cathedra 73 (1994): 62-82.

17

R. A. SegalMyth: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press2004): 4-6.

18

G. M. Kressel and R. AharoniEgyptian Émigrés in the Levant of the 19th and 20th Centuries (Jerusalem: Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs2013); A. Carmel Toldot Heifa bi-Yemey ha-Turkim (Jerusalem: Yad Ben Zvi 1977): 156 169-73; B. Kimmerling and J. S. Migdal Palestinians: The Making of a People (New York: The Free Press 1993): 36-63.

19

G. AlroeyHa-Mahapekha ha-Shketa: Ha-Hagira ha-Yehudit me-ha-Imperia ha-Rusit 1875-1924 (Jerusalem: The Zalman Shazar Center for Jewish History2008): 207-11.

28

T. GorenShituf be-Tzel ‘Imut: ‘Aravim ve-Yehudim ba-Shilton ha-Mekomi be-Heifa bi-Tkufat ha-Mandat (Ramat Gan: Bar Ilan University2008): 55.

29

D. Shoval“Heifa shel Ma’ala,” Al ha-Mishmar22 May 1944: 2; Goren Shituf be-Tzel ‘Imut: 336. A few herd owners in Kababir continued to raise sheep goats and cows until the 1950s or 1960s. Interview with A. H. Haifa 4 September 2014.

32

J. Vashitz“Hagirat Kafriyim le-Heifa bi-Tkufat ha-Mandat—Tahalikh shel ‘Iyur?” Cathedra 45 (1987): 113-33; N. Ben Ze’ev “Bein Kfar le-’Ir: Hayey Mehagrim Kafriyim be-Heifa bi-Tqufat ha-Mandat” (PhD dissertation Ben Gurion University Be’er Sheva 2010): 27-60; M. Yazbak “Ha-Hagira ha-’Arvit le-Heifa 1933-1948” (M.A. thesis University of Haifa 1984).

33

Y. FriedmanProphecy Continuous: Aspects of Ahmadi Religious Thought and its Medieval Background (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2nd ed.2003): 1-46; W. C. Smith “Ahmadiyya.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam 2nd ed. (Leiden: Brill 1960).

39

Interview with M. A. Haifa 15 August 2014.

44

Interview with A. H. Haifa 4 September 2014. A similar version of a son recruiting his father and grandfather—the first Ahmadiyya members from the ʿOdeh family—appears in the official Ahmadiyya Arabic website: “Min Ṣulaḥāʾ al-ʿArab.”

47

A. AyalonReading Palestine: Printing and Literacy 1900-1948 (Austin: University of Texas Press2004): 37-8.

49

Interview with B. O. Haifa 28 August 2014.

58

Ibid.: 27 34-8 176; S. LavanThe Ahmadiyya Movement: A History and Perspective (Delhi: Manohar Book Service1974): esp. 156-8.

59

A. LikhovskiLaw and Identity in Mandate Palestine (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press2006): 31-3.

60

P. Sartori and I. Shahar“Legal Pluralism in Muslim-Majority Colonies: Mapping the Terrain.” Journal of Economic and Social History of the Orient 55 (2012): 637-63; S. A. Kugle “Framed Blamed and Renamed: The Recasting of Islamic Jurisprudence in Colonial South Asia.” Modern Asian Studies 35/2 (2001): 257-313.

66

B. AndersonImagined Communities (London: Verso, 2nd ed.1991): 166-7.

67

P. ShifmanDiney ha-Mishpaha be-Israel (Jerusalem: The Sacher Institute, Faculty of Law, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 2nd ed.1995): vol. 1 80-1.

71

Hagana report from 23 April 1948idfa 2-464/1954: 266.

74

Interview with F. M. Haifa 25 August 2014.

80

A. Y. Degani“The decline and fall of the Israeli Military Government, 1948-1966: a case of settler-colonial consolidation?” Settler Colonial Studies 5/1 (2014): 84-99; S. Ozacky-Lazar “Ha-Mimshal ha-Tzva’i ke-Manganon Shlita ba-Ezrahim ha-’Arvim: he-’Asor ha-Rishon 1948-1958” Hamizrah Hehadash 43 (2002): 103-13; Alina Korn “Crime and Legal Control: The Israeli Arab Population during the Military Government Period (1948-66).” The British Journal of Criminology 40/4 (2000): 574-93.

82

Interview with F. M. Haifa 25 August 2014. Prior to his tenure as the Mayor of Haifa Khoushy was the chairperson of the Haifa Workers’ Council. Obviously his connections with the Jewish Labor Organization (Histadrut) made him a contact person for the unemployed.

83

Map of Haifa 1:12500 Zvi Friedlander 1964.

85

See Confino“Collective Memory”: 1388. For an example where the theoretical and methodological approaches presented in this article are employed, see his insightful article: A. Confino. “Miracles and Snow in Palestine and Israel: Tantura, a Story of 1948.” Israel Studies 17/2 (2012): 25-61.

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