The neighborhood of Kababir in Haifa is known as the center of the Ahmadiyya community in the Middle East. It was established in the nineteen century as a hamlet, and was later annexed to the municipality of Haifa. The article traces the history of Kababir since its establishment until 1964 and observes the accelerated transition from rural to urban life at the periphery of an expanding city. The story of Kababir thus illustrates one path to urbanism within Palestinian society. Based on local written and oral sources the article also shows the role of collective memory in interpreting past events and constructing cultural identity.
TamariSalimOwenRogerFactionalism and Class Formation in Recent Palestinian HistoryStudies in the Economic and Social History of Palestine in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries1982LondonMacmillan177202
Dr. Eberhard Graf von MülinenBeiträge zur Kenntnis des Karmels (Leipzig: Baedeker1908). For this article I used the Hebrew annotated translation: A. Geva Kleinberger and Y. Ben Artzi Ha-Carmel shel von Mülinen (Jerusalem: Magness Press 2013): 168.
G. Schumacher“Population List of the Liva Akka.”Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement19/3 (1887): 178. On Schumacher and the projects entrusted to him see Y. Ben Artzi “Gottlieb Schumacher–Mapot ve-Tokhniot le-Pituah Heifa be-Shalhey ha-Me’a ha-19.” Cathedra 73 (1994): 62-82.
G. M. Kressel and R. AharoniEgyptian Émigrés in the Levant of the 19th and 20th Centuries (Jerusalem: Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs2013); A. Carmel Toldot Heifa bi-Yemey ha-Turkim (Jerusalem: Yad Ben Zvi 1977): 156 169-73; B. Kimmerling and J. S. Migdal Palestinians: The Making of a People (New York: The Free Press 1993): 36-63.
D. Shoval“Heifa shel Ma’ala,”Al ha-Mishmar22 May 1944: 2; Goren Shituf be-Tzel ‘Imut: 336. A few herd owners in Kababir continued to raise sheep goats and cows until the 1950s or 1960s. Interview with A. H. Haifa 4 September 2014.
Y. FriedmanProphecy Continuous: Aspects of Ahmadi Religious Thought and its Medieval Background (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2nd ed.2003): 1-46; W. C. Smith “Ahmadiyya.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam 2nd ed. (Leiden: Brill 1960).
Interview with A. H. Haifa 4 September2014. A similar version of a son recruiting his father and grandfather—the first Ahmadiyya members from the ʿOdeh family—appears in the official Ahmadiyya Arabic website: “Min Ṣulaḥāʾ al-ʿArab.”
A. AyalonReading Palestine: Printing and Literacy 1900-1948 (Austin: University of Texas Press2004): 37-8.
P. Sartori and I. Shahar“Legal Pluralism in Muslim-Majority Colonies: Mapping the Terrain.”Journal of Economic and Social History of the Orient55 (2012): 637-63; S. A. Kugle “Framed Blamed and Renamed: The Recasting of Islamic Jurisprudence in Colonial South Asia.” Modern Asian Studies 35/2 (2001): 257-313.
Hagana report from 23 April1948idfa 2-464/1954: 266.
Interview with F. M. Haifa 25 August2014.
A. Y. Degani“The decline and fall of the Israeli Military Government, 1948-1966: a case of settler-colonial consolidation?”Settler Colonial Studies5/1 (2014): 84-99; S. Ozacky-Lazar “Ha-Mimshal ha-Tzva’i ke-Manganon Shlita ba-Ezrahim ha-’Arvim: he-’Asor ha-Rishon 1948-1958” Hamizrah Hehadash 43 (2002): 103-13; Alina Korn “Crime and Legal Control: The Israeli Arab Population during the Military Government Period (1948-66).” The British Journal of Criminology 40/4 (2000): 574-93.
Interview with F. M. Haifa 25 August2014. Prior to his tenure as the Mayor of Haifa Khoushy was the chairperson of the Haifa Workers’ Council. Obviously his connections with the Jewish Labor Organization (Histadrut) made him a contact person for the unemployed.
Map of Haifa 1:12500 Zvi Friedlander1964.
See Confino“Collective Memory”: 1388. For an example where the theoretical and methodological approaches presented in this article are employed, see his insightful article: A. Confino. “Miracles and Snow in Palestine and Israel: Tantura, a Story of 1948.”Israel Studies17/2 (2012): 25-61.