Civil-Servant Aspirants: Ottoman Social Mobility in the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century

in Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient
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With the transition from a government led by the military-administrative ruling class to that managed by the civil-servant sector during the Tanzimat reforms, the socioeconomic nature of the Ottoman bureaucracy changed dramatically. Studies have tended to focus on the new civil servants educated in the rüşdiye (state secondary schools), but poor, unskilled Ottomans seeking to improve their socioeconomic status found the newly established Ottoman police a vehicle to social mobility. A job as a policeman was one of the few these men could qualify for, allowing them to earn a steady income and receive social benefits. Gradually, service in the police force entailed becoming part of an evolving civil-servant sector.

Civil-Servant Aspirants: Ottoman Social Mobility in the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century

in Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient

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1

C.V. FindleyBureaucratic Reform in the Ottoman Empire: The Sublime Porte 1789-1922 (Princeton: Princeton University Press1980). For a discussion of the process in the criminal justice system in which practice was followed by regulation and then by legislation see O. Paz Crime Criminals and the Ottoman State: Anatolia between the Late 1830s and the Late 1860s. PhD diss. (Tel Aviv University 2011).

10

Ibid.148. On the continuation of the division between rulers and ruled see Paz “Crime Criminals and the Ottoman State”: 48-68 279-94.

14

O. Paz“Documenting Justice: New Recording Practices and the Establishment of an Activist Criminal Court System in the Ottoman Provinces (1840-Late 1860s).” Islamic Law and Society 21 (2014): 81-113; M. Yazbak “The Municipality of A Muslim Town: Nablus 1864-1914.” Archiv Orientalni: Journal of African and Asian Studies 67 (1999): 339-60.

16

Ibid.209-10.

20

C.V. Findley“Did the Late Ottoman Empire Have a Muslim Middle Class.” History and History of Civilizations 1 (2012): 1335. For works supporting this division see Göçek Rise of the Bourgeoisie and Özdalga “Introduction”: 4. Kemal Karpat argues that while the urban middle class was non-Muslim that in the countryside was Muslim; see K.H. Karpat Studies on Ottoman Social and Political History: Selected Articles and Essays (Leiden: Brill 2002): 48-9.

21

Findley“Did the Late Ottoman Empire Have a Muslim Middle Class”; T. Abou-Hodeib, “The Material Life of the Ottoman Middle Class.” History Compass 10/8 (2012) (doi 10.1111/j.1478-0542.2012.00866.x); H. Exertzoglou “The Cultural Uses of Consumption: Negotiating Class Gender and Nation in the Ottoman Urban Centers during the 19th Century.” ijmes 35/1 (2003): 77-101.

22

Findley“Did the Late Ottoman Empire Have a Muslim Middle Class” 1335-6.

23

See D. ChakrabartyProvincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference (Princeton: Princeton University Press2000). See also H. Harootunian “Ghostly Comparisons.” In Impacts of Modernities ed. T. Lamarre and K. Nae-hui (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press 2004) S.N. Eisenstadt “Multiple Modernities.” Daedalus 129 (2000): 1-29 and C. Taylor Modern Social Imaginaries (Durham: Duke University Press 2004): 2.

30

A. RubinOttoman Nizamiye Courts: Law and Modernity (New York: Palgrave Macmillan2011): 7.

34

E.J. ZürcherThe Young Turk Legacy and Nation Building: From the Ottoman Empire to Atatürk’s Turkey (London: I.B. Tauris2010): 110-2.

45

F. ZarinebafCrime and Punishment in Istanbul 1700-1800 (Berkeley: University of California Press2010). On similar developments in Europe see M. Neocleous “Theoretical Foundations of the ‘New Police Science.’ ” In The New Police Science: The Political Power in Domestic and International Governance ed. M. D. Dubber and M. Valverde (Stanford: Stanford University Press 2006): 17-41.

46

H. InalcikApplication of the Tanzimat and Its Social Effects (Lisse: Peter Ridder1976): 97-128; S.J. Shaw “Local Administration in the Tanzimat.” In 150. Yılında Tanzimat ed. H.D. Yıldız (Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları 1992): 33; A. Rubin “Ottoman Judicial Changes in the Age of Modernity: A Reappraisal.” History Compass 6 (2008): 1.

47

F. ErgutModern Devlet ve Polis: Osmanlı’dan Cumhuriyet’e Toplumsal Denetimin Diyalektiği (Istanbul: İletişim Yayınları2004): 120.

48

O.N. ErginMecelle-i umur-i Belediyye (Istanbul: Istanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi Yayını1995): 2: 875-8.

53

ErginMecelle-i umur-i Belediyye2: 880-5; H. Alyot Türkiye’de Zabıta: Tarihi Gelişim ve Bugünkü Durum (Ankara: İçişleri Bakanlığı Yayınları 1947): 66-7; N. Arslan “II. Mahmut Döneminde Modern Polis Teşkilatının Kuruluş Girişimleri Ilk Karakol Binalrı.” Istanbul 37 (1997).

56

N. Özbek“Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nda İç Güvenlik, Siyaset ve Devlet, 1876-1909.” Türklük Araştırmaları 16 (2004): 70-1.

65

O. Paz“The Usual Suspect: Working Migration and Law Enforcement in Mid-Nineteenth-Century Anatolia.” Continuity and Change 30/2 (2015): 223-49.

66

G. YoungCorps de droit ottoman: Recueil des codes lois règlements ordonnances et actes les plus importants du droit intérieur et d’études sur le droit coutumier de l’Empire ottoman (Oxford: Clarendon Press1906): 2: 289.

67

N. Zemon DavisThe Return of Martin Guerre (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books1985); S. Faroqhi “The Life and Death of Outlaws in Çorum.” In Coping With the State: Political Conflict and Crime in the Ottoman Empire 1550-1720 ed. S. Faroqhi (Istanbul: Isis 1995): 148-9.

87

G.W. Swanson“The Ottoman Police.” Journal of Contemporary History 7/1-2 (1972): 255-6; N. Lévy “Savoirs et savoir-faire dans la police ottomane au tournant des XIXe et XXe siècles.” In Métiers de police: Etre policier en Europe XVIIIe-XXe siècle ed. Jean-Marc Berlier et al. (Rennes: Presses Universtaires de Rennes 2008): 266-7.

97

S. Özmucur and Ş. Pamuk“Real Wages and Standards of Living in the Ottoman Empire, 1489-1914.” Journal of Economic History 62/2 (2002): 318; Ş. Pamuk “Prices in the Ottoman Empire 1469-1914.” ijmes 36 (2004): 454-6.

103

S.A. SomelModernization of Public Education in the Ottoman Empire 1839-1908: Islamization Autocracy and Discipline (Leiden: Brill2001): 163-4.

105

AlyotTürkiye’de zabıta98.

106

SomelModernization of Public Education162-3.

107

AlyotTürkiye’de zabıta106; Sönmez “Zaptiye Teşkilatı”: 127.

108

AlyotTürkiye’de zabıta106.

110

SomelModernization of Public Education163.

115

M.E. YolalıcıXIX. Yüzyılda Canik (Samsun) Sancağınin Sosyal Ekonomik Yaps (Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi1998); Somel Modernization of Public Education: 164. For food prices and frequently used commodities see Pamuk “Prices in the Ottoman Empire”: 451-86 esp. pages 452-4.

119

S. YetkinEge’de Eşkıyalar (Istanbul: Tarih Vakfı Yurt Yayınları2003): 76.

138

G. YoungCorps de droit ottoman: Recueil des codes lois règlements ordonnances et actes les plus importants du droit intérieur et d’études sur le droit coutumier de l’Empire ottoman (Oxford: Clarendon Press1906): 2: 289.

146

E.R. ToledanoAs If Silent and Absent: Bonds of Enslavement in the Islamic Middle East (New Haven: Yale University Press2007): 108-12; O. Paz “The Policeman and State Policy.”

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