A growing number of studies argue that the Ottomans became militantly Sunni in the sixteenth century as they participated in the age of confessionalization. In defining Ottoman Sunnism, state policy and state-appointed jurists and scholars played a significant role. This paper attempts to define Ottoman Sunnism in the sixteenth century in a manner subtly different from that of the jurists, by looking at the views of Ottoman historians on the issues that divided the original Muslim community, ultimately resulting in the Sunni-Shiʿi schism. Despite the seemingly sectarian conflicts of the sixteenth century, neither rigid Sunnism nor fierce confessionalization was carried over into the intellectual and cultural scene. A moderate inclination towards Shiʿism/ʿAlidism and strong attachment to Ahl al-Bayt continued to be potent forces in Sunni Ottoman intellectual circles.
AhmedShahabMapping the World of a Scholar in Sixth/Twelfth Century Bukhara: Regional Tradition in Medieval Islamic Scholarship as Reflected in a BibliographyJournal of the American Oriental Society200012013334
Amoretti ScarciaBiancamariaJacksonPeterLockhartLawrenceReligion in the Timurid and Safavid PeriodsCambridge History of Iran1986vol. 6 The Timurid and Safavid PeriodsCambridgeCambridge University Press610655
DresslerMarcusKaratekeHakanInventing Orthodoxy: Competing Claims for Authority and Legitimacy in the Ottoman-Safavid ConflictLegitimizing the Order: The Ottoman Rhetoric of State Power2005LeidenBrill151173
PfeifferJudithAdangCamillaSchmidtkeSabineConfessional Polarization in the 17th Century Ottoman Empire and Yūsuf ibn Ebī ʿAbdü’d-Deyyān’s Keşfü’l-Esrār fī ilzāmi’l-Yehūd ve’l-ahbārContacts and Controversies between Muslims Jews and Christians in the Ottoman Empire and Pre-Modern Iran2010WürzburgErgon1555
ŞahinKayaÇıpaH. ErdemFetvacıEmineImperialism, Bureaucratic Consciousness and the Historian’s Craft: A Reading of Celālzāde Mustafā’s Tabakātüʾ l-Memālik ve Derecātüʾ l-MesālikWriting History at the Ottoman Court: Editing the Past Fashioning the Future2013aBloomingtonIndiana University Press3958
YildirimRizaÇetinHalilBeylikler Dünyasında Kerbela Kültürü ve Ehl-i Beyt Sevgisi: 1362 Yılında Kastamonu’da Yazılan bir Maktel’in DüşündürdükleriKuzey Anadolu’da Beylikler Dönemi Sempozyumu Bildirileri. Çobanoğulları Candaroğulları Pervaneoğulları 3-8 Ekim 2011: Kastamonu-Sinop-Çankırıed2012ÇankırıÇankırı Karatekin Üniversitesi Yayınları344372
YildirimRizaPeacockA.C.S.De NicolaBrunoYıldızSara NurSunni Orthodox vs. Shiʿi Heterodox?: A Reappraisal of Islamic Piety in Medieval AnotoliaIslam and Christianity in Mediaval Anatolia2015LondonAsghate277307
Tijana KrstićContested Conversions to Islam: Narratives of Religious Change in the Early Modern Ottoman Empire (Stanford: Stanford University Press2011): 12-16; Derin Terzioğlu “Where İlm-i Hal Meets Catechism: Islamic Manuals of Religious Instruction in the Ottoman Empire in the Age of Confessionalization.” Past and Present 220 (2013): 79-114; Burak “Faith Law and Empire”: 1-23; Judith Pfeiffer “Confessional Polarization in the 17th Century Ottoman Empire and Yūsuf ibn Ebī ʿAbdü’d-Deyyān’s Keşfü’l-Esrār fī ilzāmi’l-Yehūd ve’l-ahbār.” In Contacts and Controversies between Muslims Jews and Christians in the Ottoman Empire and Pre-Modern Iran ed. Camilla Adang and Sabine Schmidtke (Würzburg: Ergon 2010): 15-55.
John WoodsThe Aqquyunlu: Clan Confederation Empire (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press1999): 4-5; Biancamaria Scarcia Amoretti “Religion in the Timurid and Safavid Periods.” In Cambridge History of Iran ed. Peter Jackson and Lawrence Lockhart (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1986): 6: 610-55. Judith Pfeiffer argues that this confessional ambiguity cannot be generalized to every part of the Islamicate world. She argues that the Shiʿis under the Ilkhanate actually used the coming of the Mongols to solidify their positions and confessional standing. Judith Pfeiffer “Confessional Ambiguity vs. Confessional Polarization: Politics and the Negotiation of Religious Boundaries in the Ilkhanate.” In Politics Patronage and the Transmission of Knowledge in 13th-15th Century Tabriz ed. Judith Pfeiffer (Leiden: Brill 2014): 129-68.
Shahzad Bashir“The Risalat al-Huda of Muhammad Nurbakhsh (d. 869/1464): Critical Edition with Introduction.”Rivista degli Studi Orientali75/1-4 (2001): 88-9. For a penetrating treatment of the intricate relationship between Ṣūfism and Shiʿism see Seyyed Hossein Nasr “Shiism and Sufism: Their Relationship in Essence and in History.” Religious Studies 6/3 (1970): 229-42. Nasr also touches upon this subject in his “Religion in Safavid Persia.” Iranian Studies 7/1-2 (1974): 271-86. In a follow-up article Hamid Algar disagrees with Nasr on the latter’s assertion that Ṣūfī orders opened the way for the Shiʿitization of Safavid Iran. Hamid Algar “Some Observations on Religion in Safavid Persia.” Iranian Studies 7/ 1-2 (1974): 290.
For this phenomenon see Moojan MomenAn Introduction to Shii Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shiism (New Haven: Yale University Press1985): 96-7; Heinz Halm Shiism: An Introduction Trans. Janet Watson and Marian Hill (New York: Columbia University Press 2004): 59-60.
Dina Le GallA Culture of Sufısm: Naqshibandīs in the Ottoman World: 1450-1700 (Albany: State University of New York Press2005): 127-35; “Forgotten Naqshibandīs and the Culture of Pre-Modern Sufi Brotherhoods.” Studia Islamica 97 (2003): 87-119.