Condominial Sovereignty and Condominial Messianism in the Timurid Empire: Historiographical and Numismatic Evidence

In: Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient

Abstract

This article problematizes the use of messianic discourse in the articulation of political sovereignty in the early fifteenth century Timurid context. It argues that the concept of condominium was among the alternatives that the Timurid authorities considered in order to formulate a novel constitutional framework for the Timurid Empire after the death of Timur, and in specific political circumstances especially in Fars, messianic and condominial principles of sovereignty conflated. To further this argument, the article focuses on one particular case, the Timurid historian Muʿīn al-Dīn Naṭanzī, who formulated the concept of condominial sovereignty, in which both Shāhrukh and Iskandar appear as equal sovereign with messianic prerogatives. Naṭanzī’s concept of condominial messianism was connected to Iskandar’s unique formulation of condominial sovereignty through his coinage. This article further argues that too many religio-political concepts are used interchangeably in secondary literature, even though our sources clearly distinguish them in terms of their specific constitutional associations.

  • Album, Stephen. 2001. Iran after the Mongol Invasion. Sylloge of Islamic Coins IX. Oxford: Ashmolean Museum.

  • Ḥāfiż-i Abrū. 1380H.sh./ 2001-2002. Zubdat al-tavārīkh. 4 vols. Ed. Sayyid Kamāl Hājj Sayyid Javādī, Tehran: Sāzmān-i Chāp va Intishārāt-i Vizārat-i Farhang va Irshād-i Islāmī.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Naṭanzī, Muʿīn al-Dīn. Muntakhab al-tavārīkh-i Muʿīnī. 1336 H.sh./1957, ed. Jean Aubin. Tehran: Khayyam: 1-407.

  • Naṭanzī, Muʿīn al-Dīn. Muntakhab al-tavārīkh-i Muʿīnī. Paris Bibliothèque Nationale de France Ms. Suppl. Pers. 1651.

  • Naṭanzī, Muʿīn al-Dīn. “Iskandar Anonymous.” 1336 H.sh./1957, ed. Jean Aubin. Tehran: Khayyam: 409-435.

  • Naṭanzī, Muʿīn al-Dīn. “Iskandar Anonymous.” London British Library Ms. Or. 1566.

  • Naṭanzī, Muʿīn al-Dīn. “Iskandar Anonymous.” St Petersburg Institut Vostokovedeniia Ms. C 381.

  • Naṭanzī, Muʿīn al-Dīn. “Iskandar Anonymous.” Tabriz Kitābkhāna-yi Millī Ms. 5311.

  • Naṭanzī, Muʿīn al-Dīn. “Iskandar Anonymous.” Mashhad Kitābkhāna-yi Āstān-i Quds-i Rażavī Ms. 4269.

  • Naṭanzī, Synoptic Account 1989. A Century of Timurid Princes. Sources on Timurid History and Art, trans. Wheeler M. Thackston. Cambridge, MA: The Aga Khan Program for Islamic Architecture at Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology: 237-246

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Naṭanzī, Synoptic Account 2001. Anonymous Synoptic Account of the Timurid House, ed. Wheeler M. Thackston in Album Prefaces and Other Documents on the History of the Calligraphers and Painters. Leiden: Brill: 88-98.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Naṭanzī, Synoptic Account. Istanbul Topkapı Sarayı Kütüphanesi Ms. B. 411: ff. 140a-142b, 159a.

  • William of Rubruck. 1990. The Mission of Friar William of Rubruck, trans. Peter Jackson. Cambridge: The Hakluyt Society.

  • www.zeno.ru [oriental coins database]. “Iskandar 812-817AH.” http://www.zeno.ru/showgallery.php?cat=1338. (Accessed 03 April 2016).

    • Export Citation
  • Aigle, Denise. 1992. Les tableaux du Muntaḫab al-tavārīḫ-i Muʿīnī. Une originalité dans la Tradition historiographique persane. Studia Iranica 21: 67-83.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Album, Stephen. 1976. A Hoard of Silver Coins from the time of Iskandar Qarā-Qoyūnlū. The Numismatic Chronicle 136: 109-157.

  • Album, Stephen. Coins and Coinage ii. Later Persian Coinage. Encyclopaedia Iranica: VI, 14-41.

  • Album, Stephen. 2011. Checklist of Islamic Coins. 3rd ed. Santa Rosa, CA: n.p.

  • Babayan, Kathryn. 2002. Mystics, Monarchs, and Messiahs. Cultural Landscapes of Early Modern Iran. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Middle Eastern Monographs.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bartol’d, V.V. 1977. Turkestan Down to the Mongol Invasion. 4th ed. Trans. V. Minorsky, London: E.J.W. Gibb Memorial Trust.

  • Bartol’d, V.V. 1956-62. History of Semirechyé. In Four Studies on the History of Central Asia, trans. V. and T. Minorsky. Leiden: Brill: I, 73-171.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bartol’d, V.V. 1964. Narodnoe dvizhenie v Samarkande v 1365g. In Sochineniia. Moscow: Nauka: II/2, 362-379.

  • Bartol’d, V.V. 1966. Khalif i sultan. In Sochineniia. Moscow: Nauka: VI, 15-78.

  • Bartol’d, V.V. 1973. Opredelenie ‘Anonima Iskendera’. In Sochineniia. Moscow: Nauka: VIII, 481-482.

  • Bartol’d, V.V. 1973. Eshche ob Anonime Iskendera. In Sochineniia. Moscow: Nauka: VIII, 491-503.

  • Bashir, Shahzad. 2003. Messianic Hopes and Mystical Visions. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.

  • Bashir, Shahzad. 2005. Fazlallah Astarabadi and the Hurufis. Oxford: Oneworld, 2005.

  • Binbaş, İlker Evrim. 2016. Intellectual Networks in Timurid Iran: Sharaf al-Dīn ‘Alī Yazdī and the Islamicate Republic of Letters. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Binbaş, İlker Evrim. 2014. Timurid Experimentation with Eschatological Absolutism: Mīrzā Iskandar, Shāh Niʿmatullāh Walī, and Sayyid Sharīf Jurjānī in 815/1412. In Unity in Diversity: Patterns of Religious Authority in Islam, ed. Orkhan Mir-Kasimov. Leiden: Brill: 277-303.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Binbaş, İlker Evrim. 2013. Anatomy of a Regicide Attempt: Shāhrukh, the Ḥurūfīs, and the Timurid Intellectuals in 830/1426-27. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 23: 391-428.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bregel’ Yuri. 1968. Novaia rukopis’ sochineniia Mu’in ad-Dina Natanzi. Narody Azii i Afriki 4: 164-165.

  • Dickson, Martin. 1963. Uzbek Dynastic Theory in the Sixteenth Century. In Trudy dvadtsat’ piatogo mezhdunarodnogo kongressa vostokovedov. Moscow: Izd-vo Vostochnoi Literatury: III, 208-216.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Doerfer, Gerhard. 1963. Türkische und mongolische Elemente im Neupersischen. 4 vols. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag.

  • Fleischer, Cornell H. 1992. The Lawgiver as Messiah: The Making of the Imperial Image in the Reign of Süleymân. In Soliman le magnifique et son temps, ed. Gilles Veinstein. Paris: Documentation française: 159-177.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Garcia-Arenal, Mercedes. 2006. Messianism and Puritanical Reform. Mahdīs of the Muslim West. Leiden: Brill.

  • Goody, Jack, ed. 1966. Succession to High Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Grant, John P. and J. Craig Barker. 2009. Encyclopædic Dictionary of International Law. 3rd ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Green-Mercado, Mayte T. 2013. The Mahdī in Valencia: Messianism, Apocalypticism and Morisco Rebellions in Late Sixteenth-Century Spain. Medieval Encounters 19: 193-220.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hinz, Walther. 1936. Quellenstudien zur Geschichte der Timuriden. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 90: 357-398.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hodgson, Marshall G.S. 1960. The Unity of Later Islamic History. Journal of World History 5: 879-914.

  • Iudin, V.P. 1992. Ordy: Belaia, Siniaia, Seraia, Zolotaia…. In Utemish Hadzhi, Chingiz-Name, ed. V.P. Iudin, Iu. G. Baranova, and M.S. Abuseitova. Almaty: Gylym: 14-56.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jackson, Peter. 2005. The Mongols and the West. London: Routledge.

  • Jackson, Peter. 1978. The Dissolution of the Mongol Empire. Central Asiatic Journal 22: 186-244.

  • Jendorff, Alexander. 2010. Condominium. Typen, Funktionwesen und Entwicklungspotentiale von Herrschaftsgemeinschaften in Alteuropa anhand hessicher und thüringischer Beispiele. Marburg: Historische Komission für Hessen.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Köhler, Michael A. 2013. Alliances and Treaties between Frankish and Muslim Rulers in the Middle East. Cross-Cultural Diplomacy in the Period of the Crusades, trans. Peter M. Holt. Leiden: Brill.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Köhler, Michael A. Munāṣafa. Encyclopaedia Islamica2: VII, 564.

  • Manz, Beatrice F. 2007. Power, Politics and Religion in Timurid Iran. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • McChesney, Robert D. 1991. Waqf in Central Asia. Four Hundred Years in the History of a Muslim Shrine, 1480-1889. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McChesney, Robert D. 2009. The Chinggisid Restoration in Central Asia: 1500-1785. In The Cambridge History of Inner Asia—The Chinggisid Age, ed. Nicola di Cosmo, Allen J. Frank, and Peter B. Golden. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 277-302.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moin, Azfar. 2012. The Millenial Sovereign. Sacred Kingship and Sainthood in Islam. New York: Columbia University Press.

  • Morgan, David. 1982. Who Ran the Mongol Empire? Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 1: 124-136.

  • Nagel, Tilman. Buyids. Encyclopaedia Iranica, IV, 578-586.

  • Paul, Jürgen. 2016. Lokale und imperiale Herrschaft im Iran des 12. Jahrhunderts. Herrschaftspraxis und Konzepte. Wiesbaden: Reichert.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peacock, Andrew C.S. 2015. The Great Seljuk Empire. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

  • Ranjbar, Muḥammad ʿAlī. 1382 H.sh./2003. Mushaʿshaʿiyan. Mahiyyat-i fikrī-ijtimāʿī va farāyand-i taḥavvulāt-i tārīkhī. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Āgāh.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rieu, Charles. 1879-83. Catalogue of the Persian Manuscripts in the British Museum. London: British Library.

  • Soucek, Priscilla P. 1992. The Manuscripts of Iskandar Sultan: Structure and Content. In Timurid Art and Culture. Iran and Central Asia in the Fifteenth Century, ed. Lisa Golombek and Maria Subtelny. Leiden: Brill: 116-131.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Soucek, Priscilla P. 1996. Eskandar b. ‘Omar Šayx b. Timur: A Biography. Oriente Moderno 15: 73-87.

  • Stori, Ch. A. and Yuri Bregel’. 1972. Persidskaia Literatura. Bio-Bibliograficheskii obzor. 3 vols. Moscow: Nauka.

  • Subrahmanyam, Sanjay. 2003. Turning the Stones Over: Sixteenth‑Century Millenarianism from Tagus to the Ganges. Indian Economic and Social History Review 40: 129-161.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Subtelny, Maria. 2007. Timurids in Transition: Turko-Persian Politics and Acculturation in Medieval Iran. Leiden: Brill.

  • Subtelny, Maria E. and Anas B. Khalidov. 1995. The Curriculum of Islamic Higher Learning in Timurid Iran in the Light of the Sunni Revival under Shāh-Rukh. Journal of the American Oriental Society 115: 210-236.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Togan, İsenbike. 1994. Uluğ Bey Zamanında Yasa ve Şeriat Tartışmaları. Tarih Çevresi 10: 9-16.

  • Togan, İsenbike. 1998. Flexibility and Limitation in Steppe Formations. The Kerait Khanate and Chinggis Khan. Leiden: E.J. Brill.

  • Togan, Zeki Velidi. 1981. Umumî Türk Tarihine Giriş. 3rd ed. Istanbul: Enderun Kitabevi.

  • Vásáry, István. 2009. The Jochid Realm: The Western Steppe and Eastern Europe. In Inner Asia—The Chinggisid Age, ed. Nicola Di Cosmo, Allen J. Frank, and Peter B. Golden. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 67-85.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Woods, John E. 1999. The Aqquyunlu: Clan, Confederation, Empire. 2nd ed. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.

  • Woods, John E. 1990. The Timurid Dynasty. Bloomington, IN: Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies.

  • Woods, John E. The Timurid Aristocratic Order: forthcoming.

  • Woods, John E. 1987. The Rise of Tīmūrid Historiography. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 46: 81-108.

  • Woods, John E. 1990. Timur’s Genealogy. In Intellectual Studies on Islam: Essays Written in Honor of Martin B. Dickson, ed. Michel M. Mazzaoui and Vera B. Moreen. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press: 85-125.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 164 135 6
Full Text Views 210 199 2
PDF Downloads 24 19 2