Morisco Prophecies at the French Court (1602-1607)

In: Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient

Abstract

This article presents a case study of a rebellion conspiracy organized by a group of Moriscos—Spanish Muslims forcibly converted to Catholicism—in the early seventeenth century. In order to carry out their plans, these Moriscos sought assistance from the French king Henry iv (r. 1589-1610). Analyzing a Morisco letter remitted to Henry iv and multiple archival sources, this article argues that prophecy served as a diplomatic language through which Moriscos communicated with the most powerful Mediterranean rulers of their time. A ‘connected histories’ approach to the study of Morisco political activity underscores the ubiquity of prophecies and apocalyptic expectations in the social life and political culture of the early modern Mediterranean. As a language of diplomacy, apocalyptic discourse allowed for minor actors such as the Moriscos to engage in politics in a language that was deemed mutually intelligible, and thus capable of transcending confessional boundaries.

  • Alonso del Castillo. 1852. Memorial Histórico Español, vol. 3: Sumario y recopilación de todo lo romançado por mi el licenciado Alonso del Castillo, romanador del Santo Oficio, desde antes de la guerra del Reyno de Granada y en ella y después […] hasta el presente año de 1575. Ed. P. Gayangos. Madrid.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Archivo de la Corona de Aragón (aca), Consejo de Aragón, Leg. 221, no. 9/22.

  • Archivo General de Simancas (ags), Estado Leg. 1352.

  • ags, Estado Leg. 1928, doc. 334.

  • ags Estado Leg. 1352, doc. 152.

  • ags, Estado, Francia, K. 1426 (A. 37).

  • Archivo Histórico Nacional (ahn), inq., Leg. 4529-2.

  • ahn, inq., Lib. 988.

  • ahn, inq., Lib. 915, fol. 530v.

  • Biblioteca Histórica de la Universidad de Valencia (bhuv), Var. 29/2, fol. 139v.

  • Bleda, Jaime. 1618. Crónica de los moros de España. Valencia.

  • Escolano, Gaspar. 1611. Segunda parte de la década primera de la historia de la insigne y coronada ciudad y reyno de Valencia. Valencia.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guadalajara, Marcos de. 1613. Memorable Expvlsion y Ivstisiimo Destierro de los Moriscos de España. Pamplona.

  • Lennox, Charlotte, trans. and ed. 1817. The Memoirs of the Duke of Sully: Prime-minister to Henry the Great. Vol. 1. Philadelphia: J. Maxwell, Printer.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mármol Carvajal, Luis del. 2015. Historia de rebelión y castigo de los moriscos del reino de Granada, ed. Javier Castillo Fernández. Granada: Editorial Universidad de Granada.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nompar de Caumont, Jacques. 1843. Mémoires authentiques de Jacques Nompar de Caumont, Duc de la Force, Maréchal de France, et de ses deux fils, les Marquis de Montpouillan et de Castelnaut. Paris: Charpentier, Libraire-Éditeur.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pompone de Bellièvre, Nicolas Brulart de Sillery. 1725. Lettres, Memoires, et Negotiations de Messieurs de Bellievre et de Sillery contenant un Journal concernant la Negociation de la Paix Traitée à Vervins l’an 1598, entre Henry IV. Roi de France; Philippe I. Roi d’Espagne, at Charles Emanuel, Duc de Savoye. Vol. 1. La Hayne: Chez Jean van Duren.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ard Boone, Rebecca. 2014. Mercurino di Gattinara and the Creation of the Spanish Empire. London: Pickering and Chatto.

  • Barceló, Carmen, and Ana Labarta. 2009. Archivos moriscos: Textos árabes de la minoría islámica valenciana, 1401-1608. Valencia: Universitat de València.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boronat y Barrachina, Pascual. 1992. Los moriscos españoles y su expulsión. Facsimile ed., 2 vols. Granada: Universidad de Granada.

  • Bouzineb, Hossein and Gerard Wiegers. 1966. Tetuán y la expulsión de los moriscos. In Tiṭwān ḫilāl al-qarnayn 16 wa 17. Tétouan: Université ʿAbd al-Malik al-Saʿdī: 73-108.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bury, Richard de. 1766. Histoire de la vie de Henri IV, roi de France et de Navarre. 2 vols. Paris: Chez Saillant.

  • Cardaillac, Louis. 1979. Le Turc, suprȇme espoir des morisques. In Actes du Premier Congrès d’Histoire et de Civilisation du Maghreb, vol. 1. Tunis: Impr. Al-Asria: 37-46.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Corey, Stephen. 2013. Reviving the Islamic Caliphate in Early Modern Morocco. Farnham: Ashgate.

  • Crouzet, Denis. 1991. Les Guerriers de Dieu. La violence au temps des troubles de religion (v. 1525–v. 1610). 2 vols. Seyssel: Camp Vallon.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Danvila y Collado, Manuel. 1889. La expulsión de los moriscos españoles. Conferencias pronunciadas en el Ateneo de Madrid. Madrid: Librería de Fernando Fe.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Domínguez Ortiz, Antonio and Bernard Vincent. 2003 [1978]. Historia de los moriscos. Vida y tragedia de una minoría. Madrid: Alianza Universidad.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • El Alaoui, Yousef. 2006. Jésuites, Morisques et Indiens: Étude comparative des méthodes d’évangélisation de la Compagnie de Jésus d’après les traités de José de Acosta (1588) et d’Ignacio de Las Casas (1605-1607). Paris: Honoré Champion.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • El Alaoui, Yousef. 2014. The Moriscos in France after the Expulsion: Notes for the History of a Minority. In The Expulsion of the Moriscos from Spain: A Mediterranean Diaspora, ed. Mercedes García-Arenal and Gerard Wiegers. Leiden: Brill: 239-268.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Epalza, Míkel de. 1992. Los moriscos antes y después de la expulsión. Madrid: Mapfre.

  • Fahd, T. D̲j̲afr. Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, ed. P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Online, 2016. University of Michigan–Ann Arbor. http://referenceworks.brillonline.com.proxy.lib.umich.edu/entries/encyclopaedia-of-islam-2/djafr-SIM_1924.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fleischer, Cornell. 1992. The Lawgiver as Messiah. In Soliman le Magnifique et son temps, ed. Gilles Veinstein (Paris: La Documentation française, 1992), 159-177.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fleischer, Cornell. 2007. Shadows of Shadows: Prophecy in Politics in 1530s Istanbul. International Journal of Turkish Studies 13/1-2: 51-62.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • García-Arenal, Mercedes. 2009. Ahmad al-Mansur: The Beginnings of Modern Morocco Oxford: One World.

  • García-Arenal, Mercedes. 2012. Shurafā in the Last Years of al-Andalus and the Morisco Period: Laylat al-mawlid and Genealogies of the Prophet Muḥammad. In Sayyids and Sharifs in Muslim Societies: The Living Links to the Prophet, ed. Kazuo Morimoto. London: Routledge: 161-184.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • García-Arenal, Mercedes and Gerard Wiegers. 2003. A Man of Three Worlds. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

  • García-Arenal, Mercedes and Gerard Wiegers, ed. 2014. The Expulsion of the Moriscos from Spain: A Mediterranean Diaspora. Leiden: Brill.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Green-Mercado, Mayte T. 2013. The Mahdī in Valencia: Messianism, Apocalypticism and Morisco Rebellions in Late Sixteenth-Century Spain. Medieval Encounters 19/1-2: 193-220.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Green-Mercado, Mayte T. A Morisco Apocalypse: The Politics of Prophecy in the Early Modern Mediterranean (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, forthcoming).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harvey, L.P. 2005. Muslims in Spain, 1500 to 1614. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

  • Janer, Florencio. 1857. Condición social de los Moriscos de España: Las causas de su expulsión. Madrid: Real Academia de la Historia.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jordán Arroyo, María V. 2007. Soñar la historia: Riesgo, creatividad y religion en las profecías de Lucrecia de León. Madrid: Siglo XXI de España Editores.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kagan, Richard L. 1995. Lucrecia’s Dreams: Prophecy and Politics in Sixteenth-Century Spain. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kagan, Richard L. and Abigail Dryer. 2013. Inquisitorial Inquiries: Brief Lives of Secret Jews and Other Heretics. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lea, Henry Charles. 1901. The Moriscos of Spain. Philadelphia: LeaBrothers and Co.

  • Lincoln, Bruce. 1994. Authority: Construction and Corrosion. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

  • Lincoln, Bruce. 1989. Discourse and the Construction of Society: Comparative Studies of Myth, Ritual, and Classification. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MacKay, Ruth. 2012. The Baker Who Pretended to Be King of Portugal. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

  • Malcom, Noel. 2015. Agents of Empire. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Marañón, Gregorio. 2004. Expulsión y diáspora de los moriscos españoles. Madrid: Santillana Ediciones Generales, Taurus.

  • Márquez de la Plata, Vicenta María. 2015. “Miguel de Piédrola, el profeta que desafió a Felipe II,” Clío: Revista de historia, 166: 66-71.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Monroe, James T. 1966. A Curious Appeal to the Ottoman Empire. al-Andalus 31/1-2: 281-303.

  • Niccoli, Ottavia. 1990. Prophecy and People in Renaissance Italy, trans. Lydia G. Cochrane. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  • Reeves, Marjorie. 1969. The Influence of Prophecy in the Later Middle Ages: A Study on Joachimism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Rivère de Carles, Natalie, ed. 2016. Early Modern Diplomacy, Theater and Soft Power. London: Palgrave.

  • Rothman, E. Natalie. 2012. Brokering Empire: Trans-Imperial Subjects between Venice and Istanbul. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

  • Subrahmanyam, Sanjay. 2003. Turning the Stones Over: Sixteenth-Century Millenarianism from the Tagus to the Ganges. Indian Economic Social History Review 40: 129-161.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Subrahmanyam, Sanjay. 2009. Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Some Afterthoughts. In The Brokered World: Go-Betweens and Global Intelligence, 1770-1820, ed. Simon Schafferet al. Uppsala: Uppsala Studies in the History of Science: 429-440.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Temimi, Abdeljelil. 1975. Une lettre des morisques de Grenade au sultan Suleiman al-Kanuni en 1541. Revue d’histoire maghrébine 3: 100-106.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van Koningsveld, P.S. 1999. An Appeal of the Moriscos to the Mamluk Sultan and Its Counterpart to the Ottoman Court: Textual Analysis, Context, and Wider Historical Background. al-Qantara 20, no. 1: 161-189.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vincent, Bernard. 2009. La conspiración morisca. ¿Proyecto o fábula? Estudis 35: 115-129.

  • Wiegers, Gerard. 2011. Jean de Roquetaillade’s Prophecies among the Muslim Minorities of Medieval and Early-Modern Christian Spain: An Islamic Version of the Vademecum in Tribulatione. In The Transmission and Dynamics of the Textual Sources of Islam, Essays in Honour of Harald Motzki, ed. Nicolet Boekhoff-van der Voort, Kees Verteegh, and Joas Wagemakers. Leiden: Brill: 229-247.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yates, Frances. 1964. Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 113 73 13
Full Text Views 172 159 6
PDF Downloads 25 21 4