Black Pepper Consumption in the Roman Empire

In: Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient

Abstract

During the Roman Imperial period huge quantities of black pepper arrived into the Empire from southern India and were employed in a range of contexts, from the culinary and medicinal, to the religious. This article seeks to examine the popularity of black pepper in the Roman Empire and test the theory that its consumption was not simply restricted to elite circles, but reached a wider spectrum of the population. In particular, price and wage data from the Edict of Maximum Prices is examined to see how feasible it was for those lower down the socio-economic spectrum to make such purchases.

  • Cato De agri cultura.

  • Celsus De Medicina.

  • Dio Cassius Roman History.

  • Diodorus Siculus Library of History.

  • Dioscorides Materia Medica.

  • Galen On the Powers and Mixtures of Simple Drugs.

  • Herodotus Histories.

  • Martial Epigrams.

  • Persius Satires.

  • Philostratus Life of Apollonius of Tyana.

  • Pliny Natural History.

  • Plutarch Moralia.

  • Seneca Ad Helviam and Epistles.

  • Strabo Geography.

  • Tacitus Annals.

  • Allen, Robert C. 2009. How Prosperous were the Romans?: Evidence from Diocletian’s Price Edict (AD 301). In Quantifying the Roman Economy: Methods and Problems, ed. Alan Bowman and Andrew Wilson. Oxford: Oxford University Press: 327-345.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Appadurai, Arjun. 1986. Introduction: Commodities and the Politics of Value. In The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective, ed. Arjun Appadurai. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 3-63.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bagnall, Roger S. 1986. Papyri and Ostraka from Quseir al-Qadim. Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrologists 23: 1-60.

  • Bernard, Paul. 1990. Vicissitudes au gré de l’histoire d’une statue en bronze d’Héraclès entre Séleucie du Tigre et la Mésène. Journal des Savants 1-2: 3-68.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bowersock, Glen W. 1989. La Mésène (Maisan) antonine. In L’Arabie préislamique et son environnement historique et culturel: actes du Colloque de Strasbourg, 24-27 juin 1987, ed. Toufic Fahd. Leiden: Brill: 159-168.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bowman, Alan K. and David J. Thomas. 1994. The Vindolanda Writing-Tablets (Tabulae Vindolandenses II). London: British Museum Press.

  • Broux, Yanne. 2017. Trade Networks among the Army Camps of the Eastern Desert of Roman Egypt. In Sinews of Empire: Networks in the Roman Near East and Beyond, ed. Håkon F. Teigen and Eivind H. Seland. Oxford: Oxbow Books: 137-146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bülow-Jacobsen, Adam. 2012. Private Letters. In Didymoi: une garnison romaine dans le désert oriental d’Égypte. II—les textes, ed. Hélène Cuvigny. Cairo: Institut français d’archéologie orientale: 233-399.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cappers, René T.J. 1998. Archaeobotanical Remains. In Report of the 1996 Excavations at Berenike (Egyptian Red Sea Coast) and the Survey of the Eastern Desert, ed. Steven E. Sidebotham and Willeke. Z. Wendrich. Leiden: Research School CNWS: 289-330.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cappers, René T.J. 2006. Roman Foodprints at Berenike: Archaeobotanical Evidence of Subsistence and Trade in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Los Angeles: The Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carson, Robert A.G. 1990. Coins of the Roman Empire. London: Routledge.

  • Casevitz, Michel. 1995. “Mots voyageurs” from India to Greece. In Athens, Aden, Arikamedu. Essays on the Interrelations between India, Arabia and the Eastern Mediterranean, ed. Marie-Françoise Boussac and Jean-François Salles. New Delhi: Manohar: 21-26.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Casson, Lionel. 1980. Rome’s Trade with the East: The Sea Voyage to Africa and India. Transactions of the American Philological Association 110: 21-36.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Casson, Lionel. 1984. Egypt, Africa, Arabia, and India: Patterns of Seaborne Trade in the First Century A.D. Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrologists 21: 39-47.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Casson, Lionel. 1989. [Introduction, Translation, and Commentary of] Periplus Maris Erythraei. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  • Casson, Lionel. 1990. New Light on Maritime Loans: P. Vindob G 40822. Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 84: 195-206.

  • Ciaraldi, Marina. 2007. People & Plants in Ancient Pompeii: A New Approach to Urbanism from the Microscope Room. London: Accordia Research Institute.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cobb, Matthew A. 2013. The Reception and Consumption of Eastern Goods in Roman Society. Greece & Rome 60/1: 136-152.

  • Cobb, Matthew A. 2014. The Exchange of Goods from Italy to India during the Early Roman Empire: The Range of Travelling Times. Ancient West & East 13: 89-116.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cobb, Matthew A. 2015a. Balancing the Trade: Roman Cargo Shipments to India. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 34/2: 185-203.

  • Cobb, Matthew A. 2015b. The Chronology of Roman Trade in the Indian Ocean from Augustus to the Early Third Century CE. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 58: 362-418.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cooley, Alison E. and Melvin G.L. Cooley. 2014. Pompeii and Herculaneum: A Sourcebook, second edition. London: Routledge.

  • Corbier, Mireille. 1985. Dévaluations et évolution des prix (Ier-IIIe siècles). Revue numismatique 27: 69-106.

  • Cowan, Carrie, Fiona Seeley, Angela Wardle, Andrew Westman and Lucy Wheeler. 2009. Roman Southwark Settlement and Economy: Excavations in Southwark 1973-1991. London: MOLA.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crawford, Michael and Joyce M. Reynolds. 1979. The Aezani Copy of the Prices Edict. Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 34: 163-210.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cuvigny, Hélène. 1996. The Amount of Wages Paid to the Quarry-Workers at Mons Claudianus. Journal of Roman Studies 86: 139-145.

  • Czarra, Fred. 2009. Spices: A Global History. London: Reaktion Books.

  • Dalby, Andrew. 2000a. Dangerous Tastes: The Story of Spices. London: University of California Press.

  • Dalby, Andrew. 2000b. Empire of Pleasures: Luxury and Indulgence in the Roman World. London: Routledge.

  • De Romanis, Federico. 1996. Cassia, cinnamomo, ossidiana: uomini e merci tra Oceano Indiano e Mediterraneo. Rome: L’ERMA di BRETSCHNEIDER.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De Romanis, Federico. 2012. Playing Sudoku on the Verso of the ‘Muziris Papyrus’: Pepper, Malabathron and Tortoise Shell in the Cargo of the Hermapollon. Journal of Ancient Indian History 27: 75-101.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De Romanis, Federico. 2015. Comparative Perspectives on the Pepper Trade. In Across the Ocean: Nine Essays on Indo-Mediterranean Trade, ed. Federico De Romanis and Marco Maiuro. Leiden: Brill: 127-150.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Douglas, Mary and Baron Isherwood. 1978. The World of Goods: Towards an Anthropology of Consumption. London: Routledge.

  • Duncan-Jones, Richard. 1982. The Economy of the Roman Empire: Quantitative Studies, second edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Durand, Caroline. 2009. The Nabataeans and Oriental Trade: Roads and Commodities (Fourth Century BC to First Century AD). Studies in the Archaeology and History of Jordan 10: 405-411.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Erim, Kenan T., Joyce Reynolds and Michael Crawford. 1971. Diocletian’s Currency Reform: A New Inscription. Journal of Roman Studies 61: 171-177.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Freedman, Paul. 2008. Out of the East: Spices and the Medieval Imagination. London: Yale University Press.

  • Giacchero, Marta. 1974. Edictum Diocletiani et Collegarum de pretiis rerum venalium in integrum fere restitutum a Latinis Graecisque fragmentis, i-ii. Genoa: Istituto di Storia Antica e Scienze Ausiliarie.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gilboa, Ayelet and Dvory Namdar. 2015. On the Beginnings of South Asian Spice Trade with the Mediterranean Region: A Review. Radiocarbon 57/2: 265-283.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gilbert, Erik and Jonathan Reynolds. 2006. Trading Tastes: Commodity and Cultural Exchange to 1750. New Jersey: Pearson.

  • Gledhill, David. 2008. The Names of Plants. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Gowers, Emily. 1993. The Loaded Table: Representations of Food in Roman Literature. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

  • Graser, Elsa R. 1940. The Edict of Diocletian on Maximum Prices. In An Economic Survey of Ancient Rome, V: Rome and Italy of the Empire, ed. Tenney Frank. Baltimore: John Hopkins Press: 305-421.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gregoratti, Leonardo. 2011. A Parthian Port on the Persian Gulf: Characene and its Trade. Anabasis: Studia Classica et Orientalia 2: 209-229.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Groom, Nigel. 1981. Frankincense and Myrrh: A Study of the Arabian Incense Trade. London: Longman.

  • Groom, Nigel. 2002. Trade, Incense and Perfume. In Queen of Sheba Treasures from Ancient Yemen, ed. St. John Simpson. London: British Museum Press: 88-101.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gurukkal, Rajan. 2013. Classical Indo-Roman Trade: A Historiographical Reconsideration. Indian Historical Review 40/2: 181-206.

  • Gurukkal, Rajan. 2016. Rethinking Classical Indo-Roman Trade: Political Economy of Eastern Mediterranean Exchange Relations. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harl, Kenneth W. 1996. Coinage and the Roman Economy: 300 BC to AD 700. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.

  • Houston, George. 2003. Galen, His books, and the Horrea Piperataria at Rome. Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome 48: 45-51.

  • Huntingford, George W.B. 1980. [Introduction and translation of] The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, [with some extracts from] Agatharkhides On the Erythraean Sea. London: Ashgate.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jacomet, Stefanie and Jörg Schibler, J. 2001. Les contributions de l’archéobotanique et de l’archéozoologie à la connaissance de l’agriculture et de l’alimentation du site romain de Biesheim-Kunheim. In La frontière romaine sur le Rhin supérieur: à propos des fouilles récentes de Biesheim-Kunheim, ed. Suzanne Plouin, Michel Reddé and Céline Boutantin. Biesheim: Musée gallo-romain: 60-69.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, Martin. 2007. Feasts: Why Humans Share Food. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Keay, John. 2005: The Spice Route. London: John Murray.

  • Kessler, David and Peter Temin. 2008. Money and Prices in the Early Roman Empire. In The Monetary System of the Greek and Romans, ed. William V. Harris. Oxford: Oxford University Press: 137-159.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kopytoff, Igor. 1986. The Cultural Biography of Things: Commoditization as Process. In The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective, ed. Arjun Appadurai. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 64-91.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kreuz, Angela. 1995. Landwirtschaft und ihre ökologischen Grundlagen in den Jahrhunderten um Christi Geburt: zum Stand der naturwissenschaftlichen Untersuchungen in Hessen. Berichte der Kommission für Archäologische Landesforschung in Hessen 3: 59-91.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kučan, Dušanka. 1984. Der erste römerzeitliche Pfefferfund—nachgewiesen im Legionslager Oberaden (Stadt Bergkamen). Ausgrabungen und Funde in Westfalen-Lippe 2: 51-56.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Küster, Hansjörg. 1995. Postglaziale Vegetationsgeschichte Südbayerns: Geobotanische Studien zur Prähistorischen Landschaftskunde. Berlin: Akademieverlag.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Livarda, Alexandra. 2011. Spicing Up Life in Northwestern Europe: Exotic Food Plant Imports in the Roman and Medieval World. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 20: 143-164.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mahadevan, Iravatham. 1996a. Pottery Inscriptions in Brahmi and Tamil-Brahmi. In The Ancient Port of Arikamedu: New Excavations and Researches 1989-1992. Volume One, ed. Vimala Begley. Pondicherry: École française d’Extrême-Orient: 287-315.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mahadevan, Iravatham. 1996b. Tamil-Brãhmi Graffito. In Berenike 1995: Preliminary Report of the 1995 Excavations at Berenike (Egyptian Red Sea Coast) and the Survey of the Eastern Desert, ed. Steven E. Sidebotham and Willeke Wendrich. Leiden: CNWS publications: 205-208.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Manniche, Lise. 1999. Sacred Luxuries: Fragrance, Aromatherapy, and Cosmetics in Ancient Egypt. London: Cornell University Press.

  • McLaughlin, Raoul. 2010. Rome and the Distant East: Trade Routes to the Ancient Lands of Arabia, India and China. London: Continuum.

  • Millar, Fergus. 1998. Caravan Cities: The Roman Near East and Long-Distance Trade by Land. In Modus Operandi: Essays in Honour of Geoffrey Rickman, ed. Michel Austin, Jill Harries and Christopher Smith. London: Institute of Classical Studies: 122-137.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miller, James I. 1969. The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire 29 B.C. to A.D. 641. London: Oxford University Press.

  • Monteix, Nicolas. 2015. Baking and Cooking. In A Companion to Food in the Ancient World, ed. John Wilkins and Robin Nadeau. Chichester: Wiley: 212-223.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morelli, Federico. 2011. Dal Mar Rosso ad Alessandria: il verso (ma anche il recto) del ‘papiro di Muziris’ (SB XVIII 13167). Tyche 26: 199-233.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mukherjee, B. N. 1991. Trade, Traders and Media of Exchange in Pre-Gupta Vanga. In Coinage, Trade and Economy: 3rd International Colloquium, ed. Amal K. Jha. Nashik: Indian Institute of Research in Numismatic Studies: 46-51.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nadeau, Robin. 2015. Cookery Books. In A Companion to Food in the Ancient World, ed. John Wilkins and Robin Nadeau. Chichester: Wiley: 53-58.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Painter, Kenneth S. 2001. The Insula of the Menander at Pompeii. Volume IV: The Silver Treasure. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Parker, Grant. 2002. Ex Oriente Luxuria: Indian Commodities and Roman Experience. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 45/1: 40-95.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parker, Grant. 2008. The Making of Roman India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Peacock, David and Lucy Blue, ed. 2006. Myos Hormos—Quseir al-Qadim Roman and Islamic Ports on the Red Sea Volume 1: Survey and Excavations 1999-2003. Oxford: Oxbow Books.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peacock, David, Lucy Blue, assisted by Julian Whitewright, ed. 2011. Myos Hormos—Quseir al-Qadim Roman and Islamic Ports on the Red Sea. Volume 2: Finds from the Excavations 1999-2003. Oxford: Archaeopress.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Phang, Sara E. 2001. The Marriage of Roman Soldiers (13 B.C.-A.D. 235). Leiden: Brill.

  • Potts, Daniel T. 1990. The Arabian Gulf in Antiquity. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

  • Purcell, Nicholas. 2016. Unnecessary Dependences: Illustrating Circulation in Pre-modern Large-scale History. In The Prospect of Global History, ed. James Belich, John Darwin, Margret Frenz and Chris Wickham. Oxford: Oxford University Press: 65-79.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raschke, Manfred G. 1975. Papyrological Evidence for Ptolemaic and Roman Trade with India. In Proceedings of the XIV International Congress of Papyrologists: Oxford, 24-31 July 1974. Oxford: British Academy: 241-246.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raschke, Manfred G. 1978. New Studies in Roman Commerce with the East. Aufstieg und Niedergang der Römischen Welt 9/2: 604-1378.

  • Rathbone, Dominic. 2000. The ‘Muziris’ Papyrus (SB XVIII 13167): Financing Roman Trade with India. In Alexandrian Studies in Honour of Mostafa el Abbadi, ed. Mohammed Abd-el-Ghani and Wessam A. Farag. Alexandria: Archaeological Society of Alexandria: 39-50.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rathbone, Dominic. 2009. Earnings and Costs: Living Standards and the Roman Economy (First to Third Centuries AD). In Quantifying the Roman Economy: Methods and Problems, ed. Alan Bowman and Andrew Wilson. Oxford: Oxford University Press: 299-326.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ravindran, P.N. ed. 2000. Black Pepper: piper nigrum. Amsterdam: CRC Press.

  • Ray, Himanshu P. 2015. Beyond Trade: Cultural Roots of India’s Ocean. New Delhi: Aryan Books International.

  • Robinson, Mark and Erica Rowan. 2015. Roman Food Remains in Archaeology and the Contents of a Roman Sewer at Herculaneum. In A Companion to Food in the Ancient World, ed. John Wilkins and Robin Nadeau. Chichester: Wiley: 104-115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rougé, Jean. 1988. La navigation en mer Érythrée dans l’Antiquité. In L’Arabie et ses mers bordières, ed. Jean-François. Lyon: GS-Maison de l’Orient: 59-74.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Salles, Jean-François. 1995. The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea and the Arab-Persian Gulf. In Athens, Aden, Arikamedu: Essays on the Interrelations between India, Arabia and the Eastern Mediterranean, ed. Marie-Françoise Boussac and Jean-François Salles. New Delhi: Manohar: 115-146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Salomon, Richard. 1991. Epigraphic Remains of Indian Traders in Egypt. Journal of the American Oriental Society 111/4: 731-736.

  • Scheidel, Walter. 2010. Real Wages in Early Economies: Evidence for Living Standards from 1800 BCE to 1300 CE. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 53: 425-462.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schwinden, Lothar. 1983. Handel mit Pfeffer und anderen Gewürzen im römischen Trier. Kurtrierisches Jahrbuch 23: 20-26.

  • Seland, Eivind. H. 2008. The Indian Ocean and the Globalisation of the Ancient World. Ancient West and East 7: 67-79.

  • Seland, Eivind. H. 2010. Ports and Political Power in the Periplus: Complex Societies and Maritime Trade on the Indian Ocean in the First Century AD. Oxford: BAR.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seland, Eivind. H. 2011. The Persian Gulf or the Red Sea? Two Axes in Ancient Indian Ocean Trade: Where to Go and Why. World Archaeology 43/3: 398-409.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seland, Eivind. H. 2012. The Liber Pontificalis and the Red Sea Trade of the Early to Mid 4th Century AD. In Navigated Spaces, Connected Places: Proceedings of the Red Sea Project V, held at the University of Exeter, 16-19 September 2010, ed. Dionisius A. Agius, John P. Cooper, Athena Trakadas and Chiara Zazzaro. Oxford: Archaeopress.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seland, Eivind H. 2014. Archaeology of Trade in the Western Indian Ocean, 300 BC-AD 700. Journal of Archaeological Research 22: 367-402.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seland, Eivind H. 2016. Ships of the Desert, Ships of the Sea: Palmyra in the World Trade of the First Three Centuries CE. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sidebotham, Steven E. 1986. Roman Economic Policy in the Erythra Thalassa 30 B.C.-A.D. 217. Leiden: Brill.

  • Sidebotham, Steven E. 2011. Berenike and the Ancient Maritime Spice Route. London: University of California Press.

  • Sidebotham, Steven E. and Willeke Z. Wendrich, ed. 2007. Berenike 1999/2000: Report on the Excavations at Berenike, Including Excavations in Wadi Kalalat and Siket, and the Survey of the Mons Smaragdus Region. Los Angeles: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sidebotham, Steven E. and Iwona Zych. 2011. Excavations. In Berenike 2008-2009: Report on the Excavations at Berenike, Including a Survey in the Eastern Desert, ed. Steven E. Sidebotham and Iwona Zych. Warsaw: University of Warsaw: 25-57.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sidebotham, Steven E. and Iwona Zych. 2016. Results of the Winter 2014-2015 Excavations at Berenike Egypt & Related Fieldwork in the Eastern Desert. Journal of Indian Ocean Archaeology 12: 1-34.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, Richard L. 2009. Trade in World History. London: Taylor & Francis.

  • Solomon, Jon 1995. The Apician Sauce—Ius Apicianum. In Food in Antiquity, ed. John Wilkins, David Harvey and Mike Dobson. Exeter: University of Exeter Press: 115-131.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stambaugh, John E. 1988. The Ancient Roman City. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.

  • Strauch, Ingo, ed. 2012. Foreign Sailors on Socotra: The Inscriptions and Drawings from the Cave Hoq. Bremen: Hempen Verlag.

  • Suresh, Sethuraman. 2004. Symbols of Trade Roman and Pseudo-Roman Objects Found in India. Delhi: Manohar.

  • Sutherland, Carol H.V. and Robert A.G. Carson, ed. 1984. The Roman Imperial Coinage Volume I Revised Edition from 31 BC to AD 69. London: Spink & Son, LTD.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tomber, Roberta. 2000. Indo-Roman Trade: The Ceramic Evidence from Egypt. Antiquity 74: 624-631.

  • Tomber, Roberta. 2007. Rome and Mesopotamia—Importers into India in the First Millennium AD. Antiquity 81: 972-988.

  • Tomber, Roberta. 2008. Indo-Roman Trade: From Pots to Pepper. London: Bloomsbury.

  • Van der Veen, Marijke. 1999. The Food Supply to Roman Quarry Settlements. In The Exploitation of Plant Resources in Ancient Africa, ed. Marijke van der Veen. New York: Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers: 171-183.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van der Veen, Marijke. 2003. When is Food a Luxury? World Archaeology 34/3: 405-427.

  • Van der Veen, Marijke. 2008. Food as Embodied Material Culture: Diversity and Change in Plant Food Consumption in Roman Britain. Journal of Roman Archaeology 21: 83-109.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van der Veen, Marijke. 2011. Consumption, Trade and Innovation: Exploring the Botanical Remains from the Roman and Islamic Ports at Quseir al-Qadim, Egypt. Frankfurt: Journal of African Archaeology Monograph Series.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van der Veen, Marijke and Sheila Hamilton-Dyer. 1998. A Life of Luxury in the Desert? The Food and Fodder Supply to Mons Claudianus. Journal of Roman Archaeology 11: 101-116.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van der Veen, Marijke, Alexandra Livarda and Alistair Hill. 2007. The Archaeobotany of Roman Britain: Current State and Identification of Research Priorities. Britannia 38: 181-210.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van der Veen, Marijke, Alexandra Livarda and Alistair Hill. 2008. New Plant Foods in Roman Britain—Dispersal and Social Access. Environmental Archaeology 13/1: 11-36.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van der Veen, Marijke and Jacob Morales. 2015. The Roman and Islamic Spice Trade: New Archaeological Evidence. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 167: 54-63.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van der Veen, Marijke and Jacob Morales. 2017. Food Globalisation and the Red Sea: New Evidence from the Ancient Ports at Quseir al-Qadim, Egypt. In Human Interaction with the Environment in the Red Sea, ed. Dionisius A. Agius, Emad Khalil, Eleanor M. L. Scerri and Alun Williams. Leiden: Brill: 254-289.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van der Veen, Marijke and Helen Tabinor. 2007. Food, Fodder and Fuel at Mons Porphyrites: the Botanical Evidence. In The Roman Imperial Quarries Survey and Excavation at Mons Porphyrites 1994-1998. Volume 2: The Excavations, ed. David Peacock and Valerie Maxfield. London: Egypt Exploration Society: 83-142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walters, Henry B. 1921. Catalogue of Silver Plate (Greek, Etruscan, Roman) in the British Museum. London: British Museum Press.

  • Warmington, Eric H. 1928. The Commerce between the Roman Empire and India. London: Cambridge University Press.

  • Wassink, Alfred. 1991. Inflation and financial policy under the Roman Empire to the Price Edict of 301 A.D. Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte 40/4: 465-493.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Webb, Percy H. 1933. The Roman Imperial Coinage Volume V Part II. Spink & Son, LTD.

  • Wendrich, Willeke Z. 2000. Basketry and Matting. In Report of the 1998 Excavations at Berenike and the Survey of the Egyptian Eastern Desert, Including Excavations in Wadi Kalalat, ed. Steven E. Sidebotham and Willeke. Z. Wendrich. Leiden: CNWS Publications: 227-250.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wendrich, Willeke Z., Roberta Tomber, Steven E. Sidebotham, James A. Harrel, René T.J. Cappers and Roger S. Bagnall. 2003. Berenike Crossroads: The Integration of Information. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 46/1: 46-87.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whitcomb, Donald S. 1982. Roman Ceramics. In Quseir al-Qadim 1980 Preliminary Report, ed. Donald S. Whitcomb and Janet H. Johnson Malibu: ARCE Reports vol. 7: 51-115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whittaker, Charles R. 2004. Rome and Its Frontiers: The Dynamics of Empire. London: Routledge.

  • Wilkins, John M. and Shaun Hill. 2006. Food in the Ancient World. Oxford.

  • Young, Gary K. 2001. Rome’s Eastern Trade: International Commerce and Imperial Policy 31 BC-AD 305. London: Routledge.

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 1033 588 60
Full Text Views 385 277 29
PDF Downloads 94 75 13