From ‘Tourkopolis’ to ‘Metropolis’: Transforming Urban Boundaries in Late Nineteenth-Century Iraklio (Candia), Crete

in Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient
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Abstract

This article examines the case of Iraklio, Crete, on its passage from the Ottoman regime to the Autonomous Cretan Polity in 1898, to interrogate current categories of ethnic boundaries used in historical and social research. It proposes an ‘archaeological’ method of investigating such boundaries in space. It conceives of the city as a field of interaction between the predominant religious groups of Muslim and Christian, and the way these groups have been represented in historical research and public memory. It also shows how understandings of ethnic boundaries were fashioned by colonial, especially British, sanitary and civic planning projects. Finally, it demonstrates how subaltern Muslim spaces, gendered places and ‘dangerous’ neighbourhoods were transformed into paradigmatic cases for understanding spatial segregation in cultural terms.

From ‘Tourkopolis’ to ‘Metropolis’: Transforming Urban Boundaries in Late Nineteenth-Century Iraklio (Candia), Crete

in Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient

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References

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Figures

  • View in gallery
    British Map included in lieutenant Clarke’s Sanitary Report (House of Commons Parliamentary Papers, vol. CXI.1, Turkey No. 1 (1899) Further Correspondence Respecting the Affairs of Crete)
  • View in gallery
    Map of the “cordon” instituted by the British forces in Iraklio, after the events of 1895-1897, Archanes Historical Archive.
  • View in gallery
    An ethnic map of Crete from G. Lejean, Ethnographie de la Turquie d’Europe. Ethnographie der Europäischen Türkei (Gotha: Justus Perthes, 1861): 2.

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