From ‘Tourkopolis’ to ‘Metropolis’: Transforming Urban Boundaries in Late Nineteenth-Century Iraklio (Candia), Crete

In: Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient

Abstract

This article examines the case of Iraklio, Crete, on its passage from the Ottoman regime to the Autonomous Cretan Polity in 1898, to interrogate current categories of ethnic boundaries used in historical and social research. It proposes an ‘archaeological’ method of investigating such boundaries in space. It conceives of the city as a field of interaction between the predominant religious groups of Muslim and Christian, and the way these groups have been represented in historical research and public memory. It also shows how understandings of ethnic boundaries were fashioned by colonial, especially British, sanitary and civic planning projects. Finally, it demonstrates how subaltern Muslim spaces, gendered places and ‘dangerous’ neighbourhoods were transformed into paradigmatic cases for understanding spatial segregation in cultural terms.

  • Aggelakis, Emmanouil. 2005. Apomnimonevmata. Athens: Estia.

  • Anagnostopoulos, Aris. 2007. “From Tourkopolis to Metropolis: The Creation of Public Space in Early 20th Century Iraklio, Crete”. Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom: Department of Social Anthropology.

    • Export Citation
  • Anagnostopoulos, Aris. 2011. Picturing Public Space: Ethnicity and Gender in Picture Postcards of Iraklion, Crete, at the Beginning of the 20th Century. In Audiovisual Media and Identity Issues in Southeastern Europe, ed. E. Pistrick, N. Scaldaferri and G. Schwörer. Newcastle Upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing: 171-191.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anagnostopoulos, Aris. 2014. Writing the Cretan Woman. Gender and Society in Two Ethnographies of Fin-de-Siècle Crete. Journal of Modern Greek Studies 32/1: 81-110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anagnostopoulos, Aris. 2016. Cosmopolitanism or Constitutive Violence? The Creation of “Turkish” Iraklio. In Everyday Coexistence: Living Together in the Post-Ottoman Space, ed. Rebecca Bryant. Oxford: Berghahn Books: 86-106.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ardaillon, E. 1897. Répartition des chrétiens et des musulmans dans l’île de Crète. Annales de Géographie 27/6: 255-257.

  • Ariel de Vidas, Anath. 2008. What Makes a Place Ethnic?: The Formal and Symbolic Spatial Manifestations of Teenek Identity (Mexico). Anthropological Quarterly 81: 161-205.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Arnaud, Jean-Luc. 2008. Modernization of The Cities Of The Ottoman Empire (1800-1920). In The City in the Islamic World, vol. 1, ed. Salma Khadra Jayyusi, Renata Holod, Antillio Petruccioli and André Raymond. Leiden: Brill: 957-982.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bien, Peter. 2001. O “Kapetan Michalis”: Ena ateles politiko mythistorima. In I Teleftaia Fasi tou Kritikou Zitimatos, ed. Theoharis Detorakis and Alexis Kalokerinos. Iraklio: Municipality of Iraklio.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blumi, Isa. 2011. Reinstating the Ottomans. Alternative Balkan Modernities 1800-1912. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Brubaker, Rogers and Frederick Cooper. 2000. Beyond “Identity”. Theory and Society 29/1: 1-47.

  • Bryant, Rebecca. 2016. Introduction: Coexistence and Conflict in the Post-Ottoman Space. In: Everyday Coexistence: Living Together in the Post-Ottoman Space, ed. Rebecca Bryant. Oxford: Berghahn Books: 1-38.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dermitzakis, M., 1962. To Palio Kastro, vol. 1. Iraklio: n.p.

  • Detorakis, Theocharis. 1998. Sfragides Kritikis Eleftherias (1821-1898). Iraklio: n.p.

  • Detorakis, Manolis. 2001. Koinonikes epiptoseis sto diamerisma Irakliou sti metapoliteftiki epanastasi tou 1895-1898. In I Teleftaia Fasi tou Kritikou Zitimatos, ed. T. Detorakis and A. Kalokerinos (Iraklio: Dimos Irakliou, 2001): 110-123.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Drakakis, Manolis. 2015. Ksypolitoi kai Karavanades: Paideia kai Politiki sto Iraklio tou Ysterou 19ou Aiona. Iraklio: HM Publishing.

  • Duclot, Docteur. 1898. En Crète. Bordeaux: Féret et Fils.

  • Elden, Stuart. 2001. Mapping the Present: Heidegger, Foucault and the Project of a Spatial History. New York: Continuum.

  • Fabian, Johannes. 1983. Time and the Other: How Anthropology Makes its Object. New York: Columbia University Press.

  • Foucault, Michel. 1970. The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences. London: Tavistock.

  • Fragaki, Evaggelia. 1978. Chandax—Kastro—to Iraklio mou. Athens: n.p.

  • Gilbert, Pamela. 2005. Mapping the Victorian Social Body: Studies in the Long Nineteenth Century. New York: State University of New York Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hacisalihoglu, Mehmet. 2011. Borders, Maps and Censuses: The Politicization of Geography and Statistics in the Multi-Ethnic Ottoman Empire. In Comparing Empires: Encounters and Transfers in the Long Nineteenth Century, ed. J. Leonhard and U. von Hirschhausen. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht: 171-210.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hidiroglou, Pavlos, 1970. Agiolatreia kai monachiki zoi ton Tourkon en Kriti. Kritika Chronika 22/1: 211-235.

  • Holland, Robert and Diana Markides. 2006. The British and the Hellenes: Struggles for Mastery in the Eastern Mediterranean 1850-1960. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Just, Roger. 1991. The Limits of Kinship. In Contested Identities: Gender and Kinship in Modern Greece, ed. Peter Loizos and Efthimios Papataxiarchis. Princeton: Princeton University Press: 114-132.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kalliataki-Mertikopoulou, Kallia. 1988. Ellinikos alytrotismos kai Othomanikes metarrythmisis: I periptosi tis Kritis 1868-1877. Athens: Estia

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Karpat, Kemal. 2002. The Ottoman Adoption of Statistics from the West in the 19th Century. In Studies on Ottoman Social and Political History, ed. Karpat, Kemal Leiden: Brill: 132-145.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kertzer, David and Dominique Arel, 2002. Censuses, Identity Formation, and the Struggle for Political Power, In Census and Identity, ed. David Kertzer and Dominique Ariel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 1-42.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lejean, Guillaume. 1861. Ethnographie de la Turquie d’Europe: Ethnographie der Europäischen Türkei. Gotha: Justus Perthes.

  • Mayne, Alan. 1993. The Imagined Slum: Newspaper Representation in Three Cities, 1870-1914. Leicester: Leicester University Press.

  • Mitzman, Arthur. 1987. The Civilizing Offensive: Mentalities, High Culture and Individual Psyches. Journal of Social History 20: 663-687.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Munn, Nancy. 1996. Excluded Spaces: The Figure in the Australian Aboriginal Landscape. Critical Inquiry 22/3: 446-465.

  • Ortner, Sherry. 1973. On Key Symbols. American Anthropologist 75/5: 1338-1346.

  • Pashley, Robert. 1837. Travels in Crete, Vol. 1. London: John Murray.

  • Peponakis, Manolis. 1997. Exislamismoi kai epanekchristianismoi stin Kriti: 1645-1899. Rethimno: Iera Mitropolis Rethymnis kai Avlopotamou.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Philo, Chris. 1992. Foucault’s Geography. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 10: 137-161.

  • Poovey, Mary. 1995. Making a Social Body: British Cultural Formation, 1830-1864. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • Quataert, Donald. 2005. The Ottoman Empire 1700-1922. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Raymond, André. 2008. The Spatial Organization of the City. In: The City in the Islamic World, vol. 1, ed. Salma Khadra Jayyusi, Renata Holod, Antillio Petruccioli and André Raymond. Leiden: Brill: 47-70.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rodrigue, Aron. 2013. Reflections on Millets and Minorities: Ottoman Legacies. In Turkey between Nationalism and Globalization, ed. Riva Kastoryano. London: Routledge: 36-46.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scott, James. 1998. Seeing Like a State. New Haven: Yale University Press.

  • Şenışık, Pınar. 2010. Rethinking Muslim and Christian Communities in Late Nineteenth Century Ottoman Crete: Insights from the Cretan Revolt of 1897. Journal of Modern Greek Studies 28/1: 27-47.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Şenışık, Pınar. 2011. The Transformation of Ottoman Crete: Revolts, Politics and Identity in the Late Nineteenth Century. London: Tauris.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stallybrass, Peter and White, Allon. 1986. The Politics and Poetics of Transgression. London: Methuen.

  • Stavrakis, Nikolaos. 1890. Statistiki tou Plithismou tis Kritis. Athens: Palligenesia.

  • Svolopoulos, Konstantinos. 2005. O Eleftherios Venizelos kai i politiki krisis is tin aftonomon Kritin, 1901-1906. Athens: Ikaros.

  • Vardavas, Minas. 1971. Kapetan Giannikos. Ethniki Foni, 25 January.

  • Vardavas, Minas. 1971a. Kapetan Michalis Psomis. Ethniki Foni, 11 January, 1973. G. Magriplis. Ethniki Foni, 8 October.

  • Varikas, Eleni. 1996. I Exegersi Ton Kyrion: I Genesi mias Feministikis Sineidisis stin Ellada 1833-1907. Athens: Katarti.

  • Young, George. 1905. Corps de droit ottoman: recueil des codes, lois, règlements, ordonnances et actes les plus importants du droit intérieur, et d’études sur le droit coutumier de l’Empire ottoman, vol. 1. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. Zaimakis, Yannis. 1999. “Katagogia Akmazonta”: Parekklisi ke Politismiki Dimiourgia sto Lakko Irakliou, 1900-1940. Athens: Plethron.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zei, E. 2005. Choros kai Fotografia: To Iraklio apo tin Othomaniki Aftokratoria stin Kritiki Politeia. Athens: Politistiko Idryma Omilou Peiraios.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 187 132 6
Full Text Views 231 207 1
PDF Downloads 25 20 0