Communal Boundaries and Confessional Policies in Ottoman Niš

In: Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient
View More View Less
  • 1 Institute for East European History, Justus Liebig University Giessen

Purchase instant access (PDF download and unlimited online access):

€29.95$34.95

Abstract

This article focuses on communal boundaries in nineteenth-century Ottoman Niš, a city located in what is today southern Serbia. In particular, it explores the implications of Robert Hayden’s model of “antagonistic tolerance” for Ottoman urban history. In a first step, by taking into consideration the urban form of Niš from a long-term historical perspective, we consider how urban space was divided between inhabitants with different religious backgrounds. The article then turns to consider the symbolic boundaries that existed between confessional groups in nineteenth-century Niš, which can be traced by looking at the construction of churches and mosques. By examining the ways in which communal boundaries were expressed, negotiated and changed through church and mosque buildings, we can begin to render the confessional policies of the Ottoman authorities more transparent.

  • Anasstasiadou-Dumont, Méropi. 2005. Vivre ensemble en pays d’islam: territorialisation et marquage identitaire de l’espace urbain. Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Méditerranée 107-110: 9-30.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aslantaş, Selim. 2007. 19. Yüzyılın Şafağında Balkanlar: Osmanlıda Sırp İsyanları. Istanbul: Kitap Yayınevi.

  • Ayverdi, Ekrem Hakkı. 1981. Avrupa’da Osmanlı Mimârî Eserleri: Yugoslavya, vol. 3/3. Istanbul: Bilmen.

  • Baer, Marc David. 2011. Honored by the Glory of Islam: Conversion and Conquest in Ottoman Europe. New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Barkey, Karen. 2014. Religious Pluralism, Shared Sacred Sites, and the Ottoman Empire. In Choreographies of Shared Sacred Sites: Religion, Politics, and Conflict Resolution, ed. Elazar Barkan and Karen Barkey. New York: Columbia University Press: 33-65.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beydilli, Kemal. 2000. Osmanlı Döneminde Kilise Siyasetinden Bir Kesit: II. Mahmud Devrinde Kilise Tamiri. In Osmanlı Devlet’inde Din ve Vicdan Hürriyeti, ed. İslâmî İlimler Araştırma Vakfı. Istanbul: İsav: 255-266.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blumi, Isa. 2011. Reinstating the Ottomans: Alternative Balkan Modernities, 1800-1912. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Borić, Tijana. 2004. O arhitekturi crkve Sv. Arhanđela Mihaila i Gavrila u Nišu (Mali Saborni Hram). Niš i Vizantija 2: 217-226.

  • Bryant, Rebecca. 2016. Introduction: Everyday Coexistence in the Post-Ottoman Space. In Post-Ottoman Coexistence: Sharing Space in the Shadow of Conflict, ed. ead. New York: Berghahn: 1-38.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Çağaptay, Suna. 2011. Prousa/Bursa, a City within the City: Chorography, Conversion and Choreography. Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 35/1: 45-69.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ćirić, Jovan. 1984. Urbani razvoj Niša. In Istorija Niša, vol. 2, ed. Historical Institute Belgrade. Niš: Gradina i Prosveta: 179-206.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crews, Robert. 2003. Empire and the Confessional State: Islam and Religious Politics in Nineteenth-Century Russia. The American Historical Review 108/1: 50-83.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • David, Jean-Claude. 1990. L’espace des Chrétiens à Alep: Ségrégation et mixité, stratégies communautaires (1750-1850). Revue du monde musulman et de la Méditerranée 55-56: 150-170.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Defterdar Sarı Mehmed Paşa. 1995. Zübde-i Vekayiât: Tahlil ve Metin (1066-1116/1656-1704), ed. A. Özcan. Ankara: TTK.

  • Donia, Robert Jay. 2006. Sarajevo: A Biography. London: Hurst.

  • Durham, Mary E. 1904. Through the Lands of the Serb. London: E. Arnold.

  • Ergenç, Özer. 1984. Osmanlı Şehrindeki Mahalle’nin İşlev ve Nitelikleri Üzerine. Osmanlı Araştırmaları 4: 69-78.

  • Fairey, Jack. 2014. Russia’s Quest for the Holy Grail: Relics, Liturgics, and Great-Power Politics in the Ottoman Empire. In Russian-Ottoman Borderlands: The Eastern Question Reconsidered, ed. Lucien J. Frary and Mara Kozelsky. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press: 131-164.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fairey, Jack. 2015. The Great Powers and Orthodox Christendom: The Crisis Over the Eastern Church in the Era of the Crimean War. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Faroqhi, Suraiya. 1994. Crisis and Change, 1590-1699. In An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, 1300-1914, ed. Halil İnalcık and Donald Quataert. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 411-636.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Freitag, Ulrike. 2014. ‘Cosmopolitanism’ and ‘Conviviality’? Some Conceptual Considerations Concerning the Late Ottoman Empire. European Journal of Cultural Studies 17: 375-391.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gavrilis, George. 2008. The Greek-Ottoman Boundary as Institution, Locality, and Process, 1832-1882. American Behavioral Scientist 51/10: 1516-1537.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ginio, Eyal. 2004. Neither Muslims nor Zimmis: The Gypsies (Roma) in the Ottoman State. Romani Studies 14/2: 117-144.

  • Göyünç, Nejat. 1982. Midhat Paşa’nın Niş Valiliği Hakkında Notlar ve Belgeler. Tarih Enstitüsü Dergisi 12: 279-316.

  • Gradeva, Rossitsa. 1994. Ottoman Policy Towards Christian Church Building. Etudes balkaniques 1994/4: 14-36.

  • Gradeva, Rossitsa. 2009. Between Hinterland and Frontier: Ottoman Vidin, Fifteenth to Eighteenth Centuries. In The Frontiers of the Ottoman World, ed. Andrew C.S. Peacock. Oxford: Oxford University Press: 331-351.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Güran, Tevfik. 2004. Temettuat Registers as a Resource about Ottoman Social and Economic Life. In The Ottoman State and Societies in Change: A Study of the Nineteenth Century Temettuat Registers, ed. Kayoko Hayashi and Mahir Aydın. London: Kegan Paul: 3-14.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hamzaoǧlu, Yusuf. 2004. Sırbistan Türklüğü. Istanbul: Logosa.

  • Hayden, Robert M. 2002. Antagonistic Tolerance. Current Anthropology 43/2: 205-231.

  • Hayden, Robert M. 2005. Religious Structures and Political Dominance in Belgrade. Ethnologia Balkanica 9: 213-224.

  • Hayden, Robert M. 2016. Intersecting Religioscapes in Post-Ottoman Spaces: Trajectories of Change, Competition and Sharing of Religious Spaces. In Post-Ottoman Coexistence: Sharing Space in the Shadow of Conflict, ed. Rebecca Bryant. New York: Berghahn: 59-85.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • İnalcık, Halil. 1973. Application of the Tanzimat and Its Social Effects. Archivum Ottomanicum 5: 99-127.

  • Ivanova, Svetlana. 2005. Varoş: The Elites of the Reaya in the Towns of Rumeli, Seventeenth-Eighteenth Centuries. In Provincial Elites in the Ottoman Empire, ed. Antonis Anastasopoulos. Rethymnon: Crete University Press: 203-246.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jašić, Nenad. 2001. Stari Niški Romi. Niš: KSS.

  • Kanitz, Felix. 1875. Donau-Bulgarien und der Balkan, Leipzig: Fries.

  • Kanitz, Felix. 1909. Das Königreich Serbien und das Serbenvolk von der Römerzeit bis zur Gegenwart, vol. 2: Land und Bevölkerung. Leipzig: B. Meyer.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Karpat, Kemal H. 2002. Ottoman Views and Policies Towards the Orthodox Christian Church. In Studies on Ottoman Social and Political History, ed. Kemal H. Karpat. Leiden: Brill: 586-610.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Katic, Tatjana. 2002. Viyana Savaşından Sonra Sırbıstan, 1683-1699. In Türkler, vol. 9, ed. Hasan C. Güzel. Ankara: Yeni Türkiye: 765-772.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kiel, Machiel. Niş. Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslam Ansiklopedisi 33: 147-149.

  • Kırımtayıf, Süleyman. 2001. Converted Byzantine Churches in Istanbul: Their Transformation into Mosques and Masjids. Istanbul: Ege Yayınları.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kraft, Ekkehard. 2003. Von der Rum Milleti zur Nationalkirche: Die Orthodoxe Kirche in Südosteuropa im Zeitalter des Nationalismus. Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas 51/3: 392-408.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krimsti, Feras. 2015. The 1850 Uprising in Aleppo: Reconsidering the Explanatory Power of Sectarian Argumentations. In Urban Violence in the Middle East: Changing Cityscapes in the Transition from Empire to Nation State, ed. Ulrike Freitag, Nelida Fuccaro, Claudia Ghrawi et al. . New York: Berghahn: 141-163.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lebl, Ženi. 2002. Do “Konačnog Rešenja”: Jevreji u Srbiji. Belgrade: Čigoja štampa.

  • Lory, Bernard. 2005. Un grand chantier communautaire en Macédoine: L’église Saint Démètre de Bitola/Manastir (1830). Revue du monde musulman et Méditerranéen 107-110: 245-257.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lory, Bernard. 2009. The Vizier’s Dream: ‘Seeing St. Dimitar’ in Ottoman Bitola. History and Anthropology 20/3: 309-316.

  • Maksimović, Branko. 1978. Idejni razvoj srpskog urbanizma: Period rekonstrukcije gradova do 1914. godine. Belgrade: Srpska Akademija Nauka i Umetnosti.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McGowan, Bruce. 1981. Economic Life in Ottoman Europe: Taxation, Trade and the Struggle for Land, 1600-1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lyberatos, Andreas. 2007. Between War and Trade: Remarks on the Political Constitution and Social Composition of the Greek Orthodox Community of Varna (19th C.). Etudes balkaniques 2007/2: 81-98.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Masters, Bruce. 2001. Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Arab World: The Roots of Sectarianism. Cambridge: CUP.

  • Nikolić, Ilija, ed. 1976. Tefter Nišavske mitropolije 1834-1872. Pirot: n.p.

  • Petrov, Milen. 2006. Tanzimat for the Countryside: Midhat Paşa and the Vilayet of Danube, 1864-1868. Unpublished PhD thesis. Princeton: Princeton University.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pokorni, Frants. 1936. Opis Istočne Srbije i jednog dela Bugarske (1784). In Vojno-geografski opisi Srbije pred kočinu krajinu od 1783 i 1784 god., ed. Dušan Pantelić. Belgrade, Spomenik SKA 2. Razred 82: 27-56.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Radushev, Evgeni. 2010. The Spread of Islam in the Ottoman Balkans: Revisiting Bulliet’s Method on Religious Conversion. Archív Orientalní 78: 363-384.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rakocija, Miša. 2005. Novootkriveni fragmenti živopisa iz stare crkve Sv. Nikole u Nišu. Niš i Vizantija 3: 335-357.

  • Silahdar Fındıklılı Mehmet Ağa. 1962. Nusretname, ed. İsmet Parmaksızoğlu. Istanbul: Milli Eğitim Basımevi.

  • Smyrnelis, Marie-Carmen. 2004. Comment définir le quartier dans une ville ottomane plurielle: Smyrne aux XVIIIe et XIXe siècles. Anatolia Moderna 10: 139-148.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spencer, Edmund. 1851. Travels in European Turkey, in 1850, vol. 1. London: Colburn & Company.

  • Stoicheva, Tatyana. 2009. ‘Giving Everyone Their Due’: Religious Buildings in Sofia and the Conceptualisation of National Identity, 1878-1912. National Identities 11/2: 187-207.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stokes, Gale. 1990. Politics as Development: The Emergence of Political Parties in Nineteenth Century Serbia. Durham: Duke University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tričković, Radmila. 1983. Urbani razvitak Niša u XVIII veku. In Istorija Niša, vol. 1, ed. Historical Institute Belgrade. Niš: Gradina i Prosveta: 243-261.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yerasimos, Stéphane. 1992. A propos des réformes urbaines des Tanzimat. In Villes ottomanes à la fin de l’empire, ed. Paul Dumont and François Georgeon. Paris: l’Harmattan: 17-32.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yerolympos, Alexandra. 2005. Formes spatiales d’expansion urbaine et le rôle des communautés non musulmanes à l’époque des Réformes: Études de cas dans les villes des provinces européennes de l’Empire ottoman (1839-1912). Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Méditerranée 107-110: 113-142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Young, George. 1905. Corps de droit ottoman, vol. 2. Oxford: Clarendon.

  • Zdravković, Ivan. 1964. Izbor građe za proučavanje spomenika islamske arhitekture u Jugoslaviji. Belgrade: Jugoslavenski Institut za zaštitu spomenika kulture.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zlatar, Zdenko. 2011. Dubrovnik’s Merchants and Capital in the Ottoman Empire (1520-1620): A Quantitative Study. Istanbul: Isis Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 437 92 9
Full Text Views 329 19 11
PDF Views & Downloads 84 34 15