Being Soviet, Muslim, Modernist, and Fundamentalist in 1950s Central Asia

in Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Abstract

How far, if at all, did the intellectual legacy of early 20th-century Muslim reformism inform the transformative process which Islam underwent in Soviet Central Asia, especially after WWII? Little has been done so far to analyze the output of Muslim scholars (ʿulamāʾ) operating under Soviet rule from the perspective of earlier Islamic intellectual traditions. The present essay addresses this problem and sheds light on manifestations of continuity among Islamic intellectual practices—mostly puritanical—from the period immediately before the October Revolution to the 1950s. Such a continuity, we argue, profoundly informed the activity of the Spiritual Administration of the Muslims of Central Asia and Kazakhstan (SADUM) established in Tashkent in 1943 and, more specifically, the latter’s attack against manifestations of religiosity deemed “popular,” which were connected to the cult of saints. Thus, this essay posits that the juristic output of Soviet ʻulamā’ in Central Asia originates from and further develops an Islamic reformist thinking, which manifested itself in the region in the late 19th- and early 20th-century. By establishing such an intellectual genealogy, we seek in this article to revise a historiographical narrative which has hitherto tended to decouple scripturalist sensibilities from Islamic reformism and modernism.

Being Soviet, Muslim, Modernist, and Fundamentalist in 1950s Central Asia

in Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient

Sections

References

  • ad-DurgeliNazir. 2012. Uslada umov v biografiiakh dagestanskikh uchenykh (Nuzkhat al-azkhān fi tarājim ʿulamāʾ Dāgistān). Dagestanskie uchenye X-XX vv. i ikh sochineniia. Perevod s arabskogo kommentarii faksimil’noe izdanie i bibliografiia podgotovleny A.R. ShikhsaidovymM. KemperomA.K. Bustanovym. Moscow: Izdatel’skii Dom Mardzhani.

  • A.Ḥ.D. 1915. Jawāb. al-Iṣlāḥ 4: 147-149.

  • ʿĀlim Khān Shākir Khwāja ūghlī. 1915. Iṣlāh wazīfalarī. al-Iṣlāḥ 9: 283-286.

  • ʿĀlim Khān Shākir Khwāja ūghlī. 1916. ʿUrwat al-wuthqā Ibn Taymīya tarjuma ḥālī. al-Islāh 9: 271-274.

  • ʿĀlim Khān Shākir Khwāja ūghlī. 1916. ʿUrwat al-wuthqā Ibn Taymīya baqīyasī. al-Iṣlāḥ 10: 319-322.

  • [ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Ṣādiq-ūghlī]. 1915. Iṣlāḥ-i qawm. al-Iṣlāh 1: 8-15.

  • GhïlmaniSadwaqas. 2015. Biographies of the Islamic Scholars of Our Times ed. Ashirbek K. Muminov and Allen J. Frank. Almaty: Daik Press.

  • Idāra [ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Ṣādiq-ūghlī]. 1917. Yāshāsūn ḥurrīyat. al-Iṣlāḥ 7: 813.

  • J. 1917. ʾŪluklarda yārdam ista wa ham karāmāt-i awliyā. Vaqyt 2147: 3.

  • Khāl-Muḥammad Tūra Qulī. 1917. Iṭṭilāʿ maqālasīgha tanqīd. al-Iṣlāḥ 4: 725-728.

  • Khāl-Muḥammad Tūra Qulī. 1917. Iṭṭilāʿgha tanqīd baqīyasī. al-Iṣlāḥ 5: 758-763.

  • [Mullā] Khāl-Muḥammad Tūra Qulī. 1917. Kasb farḍ dūr. al-Iṣlāḥ 11: 952-958.

  • Muḥammad Ḥakīm Khān2006. Muntakhab al-Tawārīkhvol. II ed. Yayoi Kawahara and Koichi Haneda. Tokyo: Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa ILCAA.

  • Muḥammad Safā Makhdūm b. Mullā ʿIsā Muḥammad Ākhūnd. 1915. Jawāb. al-Islāh 16: 492-493.

  • Mullā ʿAbd al-Ghaffur al-Ṭahūrī. 1916. Mullā Muḥammad Jān Khwāja Muftī sū’āllārīna jawāb. al-Iṣlāḥ 11: 340-346.

  • ThackstonWheeler M. ed. 1996. The Baburnama: Memoirs of Babur Prince and Emperor. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Ugolovno-protsessual’nyi kodeks UzSSR. Tashkent: Gosizdat1956.

  • AbashinSergei. 2006. Burkhan ad-Din Kilich. Islam na territorii byvshei rossiiskoi imperii. Éntsiklopeicheskii slovar’. Tom 1 ed. Stanislav M. Prozorov. Moscow: Vostochnaia literature RAN: 76-78.

  • AbashinSergei. 2017. Stalin’s Rais: Governance Practices in a Central Asian Kolkhoz. Central Asian Survey 36/1: 131-147.

  • AbduvakhitovAbdujabar. 1993. Islamic Revivalism in Uzbekistan. In Russia’s Muslim Frontiers: New Directions in Cross-Cultural Analysis ed. D.F. Eickelman. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press: 79-97.

  • Babadžanov Baxtiyor. 1996. On the History of the Naqšbandīya Muǧaddidīya in Central Mawara’annahr in the 18th and Early 19th Centuries. In Muslim Culture in Russia and Central Asia from the 18th to the Early 20th Centuries ed. Michael KemperAnke von KügelgenDmitriy Yermakov. Berlin: Klaus Schwarz Verlag: 385-413.

  • BabadjanovBakhtiyar. 2004. Debates over Islam in Contemporary Uzbekistan: A View from Within. In Devout Societies vs Impious States? Transmitting Islamic Learning in Russia Central Asia and China through the Twentieth Century ed. Stéphane A. Dudoignon. Berlin: Klaus Schwarz Verlag: 41-46.

  • BabadzhanovBakhtiiar. 2006. Khudzhra. Islam na territorii byvshei rossiiskoi imperii. Éntsiklopeicheskii slovar’. Tom 1 ed. Stanislav M. Prozorov. Moscow: Vostochnaia literature RAN: 117-118.

  • BabadzhanovBakhtiiar. 2011. O Fetvakh SADUMa protiv “neislamskikh obychaev.” In Islam na postsovetskom prostranstve: zvgliad iznutri ed. Aleksandr Malashenko and Martha B. Olcott. Moscow: Carnegie Endowment: 170-184.

  • Babajanov Bakhtiyar and Sharifjan IslamovSharīʿa for the Bolsheviks? Fatvās on Land Reform in Early Soviet Central Asia. In Islam Society and States across the Qazaq Steppe (18th-Early 20th Centuries) ed. Niccoló Pianciola and Paolo Sartori. Vienna: Austrian Academy of Sciences Press: 233-266.

  • BabadjanovBakhtiyar and Muzaffar Kamilov2001. Muhammadjan Hindustani (1892-1989) and the Beginning of the “Great Schism” among the Muslims of Uzbekistan. In Islam in Politics in Russia and Central Asia (Early Eighteenth to Late Twentieth Centuries) ed. Stéphane A. Dudoignon and Hisao Komatsu. London: Kegan Paul: 195-219.

  • BaldaufIngeborg. 1993. Schriftreform und Schriftwechsel bei den Muslimischen Russland- und Sowjettürken (1850-1937): Ein Symptom ideengeschichtlicher und kulturpolitischer Entwicklungen. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó.

  • BaldaufIngeborg. 2001. Jadidism in Central Asia Within Reformism and Modernism in the Muslim World. Die Welt des Islams 41/1: 72-88.

  • BlackwoodMarysia. 2017. Fatima Gabitova: Repression, Subjectivity and Historical Memory in Soviet Kazakhstan. Central Asian Survey 36/1: 113-130.

  • BrophyDavid. 2016. New Methods on the New Frontier: Islamic Reformism in Xinjiang, 1898-1917. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 59/1-2: 303-332.

  • DeWeeseDevin. 2002. Islam and the Legacy of Sovietology: A Review Essay on Yaacov Ro’i’s Islam in the Soviet Union. Journal of Islamic Studies 13/3 (2002): 298-330.

  • DeWeeseDevin. 2008. Foreword. In Sobranie fetv po obosnovaniiu zikra dzhakhr i sama’ (A Collection of Fatwas in Defense of the Vocal Dhikr and Sama’) ed. B.M. Babadzhanov and S.A. Mukhammadaminov. Almaty: Daik Press: 9-15.

  • DeWeeseDevin. 2016. Mapping Khwārazmian Connections in the History of Sufi Traditions: Local Embeddedness, Regional Networks, and Global Ties of the Sufi Communities of Khwārazm. Eurasian Studies 14/1-2: 37-97.

  • DudoignonStéphane A. 2011. From Revival to Mutation: The Religious Personnel of Islam in Tajikistan from de-Stalinization to Independence (1955-1991). Central Asian Survey 30/1: 53-80.

  • EdenJeff. 2016. A Soviet Jihad against Hitler: Ishan Babakhan calls Central Asian Muslims to War. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 59/1-2: 237-264.

  • EpkenhansTim. 2016. The Origins of the Civil War in Tajikistan: Nationalism Islamism and Violent Conflict in Post-Soviet Space. London: Lexington Books.

  • FrankAllen J. 2012. Bukhara and the Muslims of Russia: Sufism Education and the Paradox of Islamic Prestige. Leiden and Boston: Brill.

  • GouldRebecca. 2015. Ijtihād against Madhhab: Legal Hybridity and the Meanings of Modernity in Early Modern Daghestan. Comparative Studies in Society and History 57/1: 35-66.

  • GouldRebecca and Shamil Shikhaliev. 2017. Beyond the Taqlīd/Ijtihād Dichotomy: Daghestani Legal Thought under Russian Rule. Islamic Law and Society 24/1-2: 142-169.

  • GrassiEvelin. 2015. The Manuscripts of the Works by Aḥmad Dāniš and His Popularity as a “Precursor” of the Bukharan Jadids. In Iranian Languages and Literatures of Central Asia from the Eighteenth Century to the Present ed. Matteo de Chiara and Evelin GrassiStudia Iranica. Cahier 57. Paris: Association pour l’Avancement des Études Iraniennes: 233-258.

  • GriffelFrank. 2015. What do We Mean by “Salafi”? Connecting Muḥammad ʿAbduh with Egypt’s Nūr Party in Islam’s Contemporary Intellectual History. Die Welt des Islams 55/2: 186-220.

  • HannChris and Mathijs Pelkmans2009. Realigning Religion and Power in Central Asia: Islam, Nation-State and (Post)Socialism. Europe–Asia Studies 61/9: 1517-1541.

  • KampMarianne. 2006. The New Woman in Uzbekistan: Islam Modernity and Unveiling under Communism. Seattle: Washington University Press.

  • Kehl-BodrogiKrisztina. 2008. ‘Religion Is Not So Strong Here’: Muslim Religious Life in Khorezm after Socialism. Berlin: Lit.

  • KellerShoshana. 2001. To Moscow not Mecca: The Soviet Campaign Against Islam in Central Asia 1917-1941. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger.

  • KellerShoshana. 2007. Going to School in Uzbekistan. In Everyday Life in Central Asia: Past and Present ed. Jeff Sahadeo and Russel Zanca. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press: 252-270.

  • KemperMichaelRaoul MotikaStephan Reichmuth. 2010. Introduction. In Islamic Education in the Soviet Union and its Successor States ed. M. KemperR. Motika and S. Reichmuth. London and N.Y. Routledge: 1-20.

  • KemperMichaelAnke von KügelgenRaoul Motika. 2013. Einleitung: Diversität—Repression—Anpassung—Neuorientierung? In Repression—Anpassung—Neuorientierung: Studien zum Islam in der Sowjetunion und dem postsowjetischen Raum ed. M. KemperA. von KügelgenR. Motika. Wiesbaden: Reichert: 1-15.

  • KemperMichael and Shamil Shikhaliev. 2015 Qadimism and Jadidism in Twentieth-Century Daghestan. Asiatische Studien 69/3: 593-624.

  • KhalidAdeeb. 2006. Backwardness and the Quest for Civilization: Early Soviet Central Asia in Comparative Perspective. Slavic Review 65/2: 231-251.

  • KhalidAdeeb. 2007. A Secular Islam: Nation, State, and Religion in Uzbekistan. International Journal of Middle East Studies 35: 573-598.

  • KhalidAdeeb. 2007. Islam after Communism: Religion and Politics in Central Asia. Berkeley: University of California Press.

  • KhalidAdeeb. 2015. Making Uzbekistan: Nation Empire and Revolution in the Early USSR. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.

  • von KügelgenAnke. 1998. Die Entfaltung der Naqšbandīya Muǧaddidīya im mittleren Transoxanien vom 18. bis zum Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts: Ein Stück Detektivarbeit. In Muslim Culture in Russia and Central Asia from the 18th to the Early 20th Centuries vol. 2 ed. Anke von KügelgenMichael KemperAllen J. Frank. Berlin: Klaus Schwarz Verlag: 101-151.

  • von KügelgenAnke. 2000. Sufimeister und Herrscher in Zwiegespräch: Die Schreiben des Fadl Ahmad aus Peschawar an Amir Haydar in Buchara. In Muslim Culture in Russia and Central Asia from the 18th to the Early 20th Centuries vol. 3 ed. Anke von KügelgenAshirbek MuminovMichael Kemper. Berlin: Klaus Schwarz Verlag: 219-351.

  • von KügelgenAnke. 2017. Moral Education in Central Asia, 19th-21st Centuries: The Foundations for Sufi, Jadīd, Soviet, National, and Islamist Ethics. In The Piety of Learning: Islamic Studies in Honor of Stefan Reichmuth ed. R. Elger and M. Kemper. Leiden: Brill: 76-102.

  • LaruelleMarlene. 2012. What we Have (Not) Learned about the Twentieth-Century Central Asian History. Demokratizatsiya 20/3: 216-222.

  • LiuMorgan Y. 2012. Under Solomon’s Throne: Uzbek Visions of Renewal in Osh. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

  • MartinTerry. 2001. The Affirmative Action Empire: Nations and Nationalisms in the Soviet Union 1923-1939. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.

  • MeyerJames H. 2014. Turks across Empires: Marketing Muslim Identity in the Russian-Ottoman Borderlands 1856-1914. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • MorrisonAlexander. 2016. Muslims and Modernity in the Russian Empire. A Review Essay of Imperial Russia’s Muslims: Islam, Empire, and European Modernity, 1788-1914 by Mustafa Tuna. The Slavonic and East European Review 94/4: 715-724.

  • MuminovAschirbek. 2005. Chami-Damulla et son rôle dans la constitution d’un “Islam soviétique”. In Islam et politique en ex-URSS (Russie d’Europe et Asie centrale) ed. M. LaruelleS. Peyrouse. Paris: L’Harmattan: 241-261.

  • MuminovAshirbek. 2007. Fundamentalist Challenges to Local Islamic Traditions in Soviet and post-Soviet Central Asia. In Empire Islam and Politics in Central Eurasia ed. Tomohiko Uyama. Sapporo: The Slavic Research Center: 249-262.

  • OgudinV.L. 2003. Tron Solomona. Istoriia formirovaniia kul’ta. In Podvizhniki islama. Kul’t sviatykh i sufizm v Srednei Azii i na Kavkaze ed. S.N. Abashin and V.O. Bobrovnikov. Moscow: Vostochnaia Literatura RAN: 69-102.

  • OlcottMartha B. 2007. Roots of Radical Islam in Central Asia. Carnegie Papers 77.

  • PelkmansMathijs2017. Fragile Conviction: Changing Ideological Landscapes in Urban Kyrgyzstan. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.

  • RakhimkulovaM.F. 1988. Bibliografiia knig i statei Rizy Fakhretdinova. In Tvorchestvo Rizy Fakhretdinova. Issledovaniia i materialy ed. G.B. KhusainovR.Z. ShakurovZ. Ia. Sharipova. Ufa: VNTs UrO AN SSSR: 116-133.

  • RasanayagamJohan. 2011. Islam in Post-Soviet Uzbekistan: The Morality of Experience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Ro’iYa’acov. 1995. The Secularization of Islam and the USSR’s Muslim Areas. In Muslim Eurasia: Conflicting Legacies ed. Yaacov Ro’i. London: Frank Cass: 5-20.

  • Ro’iYa’acov. 2000. Islam in the Soviet Union: from the Second World War to Gorbachev. London: Hurst and Company.

  • SartoriPaolo. 2006. Tashkent 1918: giurisperiti musulmani e autorità sovietiche contro “i predicatori del bazar”. Annali di Ca’ FoscariSerie Orientale 31 XLV/3: 113-138.

  • SartoriPaolo. 2008. La nazione nella tradizione. Millat nelle riviste degli ʿulamāʾ di Tashkent (1917-1918). Rivista degli Studi Orientali 79/ supplemento no. 1: 1-100.

  • SartoriPaolo. 2009. Who Can Employ the Offerings to the Shrines? A Steppe Mullah Against the Descent Groups. In Kazakhstan: Religions and Society in the History of Central Eurasia ed. G. BonoraN. Pianciola and P. Sartori. Turin: Allemandi: 211-221.

  • SartoriPaolo. 2010a. Towards a History of the Muslims’ Soviet Union: A View from Central Asia. Die Welt des Islams 50/3-4 (2010): 315-334.

  • SartoriPaolo. 2010b. What Went Wrong? The Failure of Soviet Policy on Sharīʿa Courts in Turkestan. Die Welt des Islams 50/3-4: 397-434.

  • SartoriPaolo. 2016. Ijtihād in Bukhara: Central Asian Jadidism and Local Genealogies of Cultural Change. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 59/1-2: 193-236.

  • SartoriPaolo. 2017. Exploring the Islamic Juridical Field in the Russian Empire: An Introduction. Islamic Law and Society 24/1-2: 1-19.

  • TasarEren. 2011. Islamically Informed Soviet Patriotism in Postwar Kyrgyzstan. Cahiers du Monde Russe 52/2-3: 387-404.

  • TasarEren. 2016. The Official Madrasas of Soviet Uzbekistan. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 59/1-2: 265-302.

  • TasarEren. 2017. Soviet and Muslim: The Institutionalization of Islam in Central Asia 1943-1991. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • ThibaultHélène. 2015. The Soviet Secularization Project in Central Asia: Accommodation and Institutional Legacies. Eurostudia 10/1: 11-31.

  • YemelianovaGalina. 2018. How ‘Muslim’ are Central Asian Muslims? A Historical and Comparative Enquiry. In Being Muslim in Central Asia: Practices Politics and Identities ed. Marlene Laruelle. Leiden and Boston: Brill: 12-37.

  • Yo’ldoshkho’jaevHaydarkhon and Irodakhon Qayumova. 2015. O’zbekiston ulamolari. Tashkent: Movarrounnahr nashriyoti.

Figures

Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 395 395 32
Full Text Views 97 97 4
PDF Downloads 27 27 4
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0