Controlling Memory and Movement: The Early Ming Court and the Changing Chinggisid World

In: Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient
View More View Less
  • 1 Colgate University

Purchase instant access (PDF download and unlimited online access):

€25.00$30.00

Abstract

The Mongol imperial enterprise produced memories and spurred migration on a continental scale among the conquerors, the vanquished, and agents of empire. During the 14th and early 15th centuries, the Ming court of China tried to shape the memory of the Mongol empire to enhance Ming political legitimacy, dampen hopes of a Mongolian revival, and facilitate the transfer of allegiance from the Mongol empire to Ming dynasty. The Ming court also integrated former Yuan personnel, including not just Chinese subjects but hundreds of thousands of Mongols and Jurchens, into the Ming polity. In examining these processes, the essay contributes to the wider discussion of how successor polities throughout Eurasia sought to turn the legacy of the Mongol empire to their own advantage, which had the unintended consequence of keeping memory of the Chinggisid age vital long after the empire’s fall.

  • Allsen, Thomas T. 1997. Ever Closer Encounters: The Appropriation of Culture and the Apportionment of Peoples in the Mongol Empire. Journal of Early Modern History 1/1: 2-23.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Allsen, Thomas T. 2015. Population Movements in Mongol Eurasia. In Nomads as Agents of Cultural Change, ed. Reuven Amitai and Michal Biran. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i: 119-151.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Amitai, Reuven. 2008. Mamluks of Mongol Origin and Their Role in Early Mamluk Political Life. Mamlūk Studies Review 12/1: 119-137.

  • Atwood, Christopher. 2004. Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire. New York: Facts on File.

  • Atwood, Christopher. 2014. Historiography and Transformation of Ethnic Identity in the Mongol Empire: The Öng’üt Case. Asian Ethnicity 15/5: 514-534.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ayalon, David. 1988. The Auxiliary Forces of the Mamluk Sultanate. Der Islam 65: 13-37.

  • Biran, Michal. 2002. The Chaghadaids and Islam: The Conversion of Tarmashirin Khan. Journal of the American Oriental Society 122/4: 742-752.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Biran, Michal. Forthcoming. Mongol Imperial Space: From Universalism to Glocalization. In Universality and Its Limits: Spatial Dimensions of Eurasian Empires, ed. Yuri Pines, Michal Biran, Jörg Rüpke and Eva Cancik-Kirschbaum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bretschneider, Emilii V. 1910. Mediæval Researches from Eastern Asiatic sources. Fragments towards the Knowledge of the Geography and History of Central and Western Asia from the 13th to the 17th century. London: K. Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen Gaohua 陳高華. 2005. Yuanshi yanjiu xinlun 元史研究新論 [New Directions in Yuan History]. Shanghai: Shanghai shehui kexue chubanshe.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chŏng Inji 鄭麟趾. 1908. Koryŏ sa 高麗史 [Official History of the Koryŏ Dynasty]. Tokyo: Kokusho kankōkai.

  • Dardess, John. 1983. Confucianism and Autocracy. Berkeley: University of California Press.

  • Dardess, John. 1994. Bibliographic Essay. In The Cambridge History of China, vol. 6, Alien Regimes and Border States, 907-1368, ed. Denis Twitchett and Frederick Mote. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 689-699.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Duan Hairong 段海蓉. 2011. Yuanmo Fang Guozhen zhixia semuren de jingyu yu xintai 元末方國珍治下色目人的境遇與心態 [The Circumstances and Attitudes of Central Asians under Fang Guozhen during the Late Yuan Period]. Nankai xuebao 南開學報 3: 57-63.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Elverskog, Johan. 2004. The Story of Zhu and the Mongols of the 17th Century. Ming Studies 50: 39-76.

  • Elverskog, Johan. 2006. The Legend of Muna Mountain. Inner Asia 8: 99-122.

  • Fletcher, Joseph. 1968. China and Central Asia, 1368-1884. In The Chinese World Order, ed. John K. Fairbank. Cambridge: Harvard University Press: 206-224

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • xxx Ḥaydar, Mīrzā Muḥammad Dūghlāt. 1970. History of the Mughals of Central Asia being the Tarikh-i-rashidi 1898. Trans. E. Denison Ross and ed. N. Elias. 2nd edition, London, 1898; reprint, 1970. New York, Washington, and London: Praeger Publishers.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ḥaydar, Mīrzā Muḥammad Dūghlāt. 1996. Tarikh-i-Rashidi: A History of the Khans of Moghulistan. Ed., tr. and annotated Wheeler M. Thackston. Cambridge MA: Harvard University, Dept. of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations. 2 vols.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hsiao Ch’i-ch’ing (Xiao Qiqing) 蕭啟慶. 2003. Yuanji semuren renshi de shehui gangluo: yi Xie Bailiaoxun qingnian shidai wei zhongxin 元季色目人士的社會綱絡:以偰百遼遜青年時代為中心 [Social Networks of Central Asians during the Late Yuan Period: The Youth of Xiebailiaoxun]. Zhongyang yanjiuyuan lishi yuyan yanjiusuo jikan 中央研究院歷史語言研究所集刊 [Journal of the History and Philology Institute of the Academica Sinica] 74/1: 65-95.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hsiao Ch’i-ch’ing (Xiao Qiqing) 蕭啟慶. 2008. Lun Yuandai Menggu semuren de Hanhua yu shirenhua 論元代蒙古色目人的漢化與士人化 [The Sinicization and Literatization of Mongols and Central Asians during the Yuan Period]. In Yuandai de zuqun wenhua yu keju 元代的族群文化與科舉 [Ethnic Culture and the Civil Examinations during the Yuan Period], ed. Hsiao Ch’i-ch’ing. Taibei: Lianjing: 55-84.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jackson, Peter. 1999. The Delhi Sultanate. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Kauz, Ralph. 2005. Politik und Handel zwischen Ming und Timuriden: China, Iran und Zentralasien im Spätmittelalter. Wiesbaden: Reichert Verlag.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim Hodong 金浩東. 1989. Hwa’i yŏk’ŏ ŭi ‘Napmun pumasŏ’ e taehan chehaesŏk—14 segi huban Mogur hanguksa haemyŏng ŭi ilcharyo『華夷譯語』의「納門駙馬書」에대한再解釋—14世紀後半모굴汗國史解明의一資料— [A Reexamination of ‘Imperial Son-in-Law Namun’s Letter to the Ming Throne’ in Huayi yiyu: A Source for Explaining the Moghul Khanate in the Second Half of the Fourteenth Century]. Artai hakpo 알타이학보 [Altai Studies] 1: 15-34.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim Hodong 金浩東. 1999. The Early History of the Moghul Nomads: The Legacy of the Chaghatai Khanate. In The Mongol Empire and Its Legacy, ed. Reuven Amitai-Preiss and David O. Morgan. Leiden: Brill: 290-318.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Manz, Beatrice. 1998. Temür and the Problem of the Conqueror’s Legacy. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Series 3, 8/1: 21-41.

  • Manz, Beatrice. 2000. Mongol History Rewritten and Relived. Revue des monde musulmans et de la Méditerranée 89-90 (2000): 129-149.

  • Matsumura Jun 松村潤. 1957. Mindai Hami ōke no kigen 明代哈密王家の起源 [Origins of the Hami Royal Family during the Ming Period]. Tōyō gakuhō 東洋學報 [Oriental Journal] 39/4: 32-48.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ming Taizu shilu 明太祖實錄 [Veritable Records of The Ming Founder]. 1961-6. Taibei: Zhongyang yanjiuyuan lishi yuyan yanjiusuo.

  • Robinson, David. 2009. Empire’s Twilight: Northeast Asia under the Mongols. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

  • Robinson, David. Forthcoming-a. Delimiting the Realm under the Ming Dynasty. In Universality and its limits: Spatial Dimensions of Eurasian Empires, ed. Yuri Pines, Michal Biran, Jörg Rüpke and Eva Cancik-Kirschbaum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robinson, David. Forthcoming-b. In the Shadow of the Mongol Empire: The Early Ming Court in Eurasia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robinson, David. Forthcoming-c. Ming China and Its Allies: Imperial Rulership in Eurasia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Rossabi, Morris. 1997. Ming Foreign Policy: The Case of Hami. In China and Her Neighbors: Borders, Visions of the Other, Foreign Policy 10th to 19th Century, ed. Sabine Dabringhaus and Roderich Ptak. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag: 79-97.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Qi Wenying 奇文瑛. 2011. Mingdai weisuo guifuren yanjiu 明代衛所歸附人研究 [Naturalized Garrison Soldiers of the Ming Period]. Beijing: Zhongyang minzu daxue chubanshe.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Qian Mu 錢穆. 2009. Du kaiguo zhuchen shiwenji 讀開國諸臣詩文集 [Reading the Literary Collections of Early Ming Ministers] and Du kaiguo zhenchen shiwenji xupian 讀開國諸臣詩文集續篇 [Reading the Literary Collections of Early Ming Ministers: A Sequel]. In Zhongguo xueshu sixiangshi luncong 中國學術思想史 論叢 [Collected Essays on the History of Scholarly Thought in China], ed. Qian Mu. Beijing: Sanlian shudian: vol. 6.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Serruys, Henry. 1955. Mélanges chinois et bouddhiques, vol. 10. The Mongols of Kansu during the Ming. Brussels: l’Institut belge des hautes études chinoises.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Serruys, Henry. 1959a. Were the Ming Against the Mongols’ Settling in North China? Oriens Extremus 6/2: 131-159.

  • Serruys, Henry. 1959b. Mélanges chinois et bouddhiques, vol. 11. The Mongols in China during the Hung-wu Period. Brussels: l’Institut belge des hautes études chinoises.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Serruys, Henry. 1959c. A Mongol Settlement in North China at the end of the 16th Century. Central Asiatic Journal 4: 237-278.

  • Serruys, Henry. 1959d. Mongols Ennobled during the Early Ming. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 22: 209-260.

  • Serruys, Henry. 1966. Land Grants to the Mongols in China, 1400-1460. Monumenta Serica 25: 394-405.

  • Song Dehui 宋德輝. 2010. Mingchao Tainingwei kaoshu 明朝泰寧衛考述 [Notes on Taining Garrisons during the Ming Period]. Bowuguan yanjiu 博物館研究 [Museum Studies] 3: 57-63.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Szonyi, Michael. 2017. The Art of Being Governed: Everyday Politics in Late Imperial China. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  • Wang Shenrong 王慎榮. 1991. Yuanshi tanyuan 元史探源 [Examination of the Sources of the Official History of the Yuan Dynasty]. Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang Linkun 楊林坤. 2003. Mingdai Hami Chahatai houwang tongzong shixikao 明代哈密察合台後王世系考 [A Genealogical Study of the Successors to the Chaghatai Rulers of Hami during the Ming Period]. Xibei dier minzu xueyuan xuebao 西北第二民族學院學報 [Journal of the Second National Minorities Institute the Northwest] 2: 24-28.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu Moying 于默穎. 2000. Mingdai Hami Menggu de fenggong wenti 明代哈密蒙古的封貢問題 [Investiture and Tribute Issues of the Hami Mongols during the Ming Period], Neimenggu daxue xuebao 內蒙古大學學報 [Journal of Inner Mongolia University] 32/5: 10-13.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang Jia 張佳. 2014. Mingchu de Hanzu Yuan yimin 明初的漢族元遺民 [Han-Chinese Remnants of the Yuan Dynasty during the Early Ming Period]. Gudai wenming 古代文明 [Ancient Civilization] 8/1: 58-67.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhou Song 周松. 2009. Mingchu Chahan naoer wei zhifeikao 明初察罕腦兒衛置廢考 [An Institutional Study of the Chaghan-Naghur during the Early Ming Period]. Zhongguo lishi dili luncong 中國歷史地理論叢 [Journal of Chinese Historical Geography] 24/2: 126-134, 143

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhu Yuanzhang 朱元璋. 1966. Mingchao kaiguo wenxian 明朝開國文獻 [Documents from the Founding of the Ming Dynasty]. Taibei: Xuesheng shuju.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 224 87 30
Full Text Views 125 41 6
PDF Views & Downloads 100 30 7