The concept “second slavery” as applied to the resurgence of slavery as a factor of production in the Americas in the nineteenth century emphasizes radical changes in the economies of the Atlantic world. The expansion of slavery in the southern United States, Cuba and Brazil occurred in the context of the emergence of an independent Haiti, where slavery had once been dominant but was now abolished, and where the British shifted from being the most important nation in the slave trade to the champions of its abolition, ultimately emancipating the slaves in their colonial empire. The comparable expansion in slavery that occurred in Islamic West Africa as a result of jihad in the same era must be placed in the context of other developments in the Atlantic world. Unlike second slavery in the Americas, developments in the jihad states resulted in economic autonomy, not the growth of the global economy.
Dale TomichThrough the Prism of Slavery: Labor Capital and World Economy (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield2004); Anthony E. Kaye “The Second Slavery: Modernity in the Nineteenth-Century South and the Atlantic World” Journal of Southern History 75 no. 3 (Aug. 2009): 627. Also see Tomich “The ‘Second Slavery’: Bonded Labor and the Transformations of the Nineteenth-Century World Economy” in Francisco O. Ramírez (ed.) Rethinking the Nineteenth Century: Contradictions and Movement (New York: Praeger 1988) 103–117; Dale W. Tomich “The Wealth of the Empire: Francisco de Arango y Parreno Political Economy and the Second Slavery in Cuba” Comparative Studies in Society and History 45 no. 1 (Jan. 2003): 4–28; Dale Tomich and Michael Zeuske eds. The Second Slavery: Mass Slavery World-Economy and Comparative Microhistories Part II special issue of Review: A Journal of the Fernand Braudel Center 31 (2008); Dale Tomich “Atlantic History and World Economy: Concepts and Constructions” Proto Sociology: An International Journal of Interdisciplinary Research 20 (2004): 102–121; and Michael Zeuske “Historiography and Research Problems of Slavery and the Slave Trade in a Global-Historical Perspective” International Review of Social History 57 no. 1 (Apr. 2012): 87–111.
For a summary see Polly HillRural Hausa: A Village and a Setting (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press1972) 40 319. E.A. Ayandele has noted that “without slaves the economy would have collapsed;” see “Observations on Some Social and Economic Aspects of Slavery in Pre-Colonial Northern Nigeria” Nigerian Journal of Economic and Social Studies 9 (1967): 333.
Frederick D. LugardInstructions to Political and Other Officers on Subjects Chiefly Political and Administrative (London: Waterloo1906) 296 301; and S.A. Balogun “Economic Activities and Ties of Gwandu Emirates and Their Neighbors in the Nineteenth Century” (Kano: Kano Seminar unpublished 1976).
Hill“The Case of Farm-Slavery in Nigerian Hausaland”395–426; Michael Mason “Captive and Client Labour and the Economy of the Bida Emirate 1857–1901”Journal of African History 14 no. 3 (July 1973): 453–471; Allan Meyers “Slavery in the Hausa-Fulani Emirates” in Daniel F. McCall and Norman R. Bennett eds. Aspects of West African Islam (Boston: African Studies Center Boston University 1971) 173–184; M.G. Smith The Economy of Hausa Communities of Zaria (London: H.M.S.O. 1955) 81–82; Lugard Instructions to Political and Other Officers 296–302 reproduced in African Economic History 40 (2012): 143–177; Irmgard Sellnow “Die Stellung der Sklaven in der Hausa-Gesellschaft” Mitteilungen aus den Institut fur Orientforschung 10 (1946): 85–102; Joseph Paul Irwin Liptako Speaks. History from Oral Tradition in Africa (Princeton: Princeton University Press 1981); and Jean-Claude Froelich “Le commandement et l’ organisation sociale chez les Fulbe de l’ Adamoua (Cameroun)” Etudes Camerounaises 45–46 (1954) 5–91.
Kenneth F. KippleBlacks in Colonial Cuba 1774–1899 (Gainsville: University Press of Florida1976); Robert Conrad The Destruction of Brazilian Slavery 1850–1888 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press 1972) 26 281; and Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History “Facts about the Slave Trade and Slavery” based on the United States Census 1860. Also see Herbert Klein “African Women in the Atlantic Slave Trade” in Claire D. Robertson and Martin A. Klein Women and Slavery in Africa (Portsmouth NH: Heinemann 1997) 29–38. Manolo Garcia Florentino Em costas negras: uma historia do trafico de escravos entre a Africa e o Rio de Janeiro 1790–1830 (Sao Paulo: Companhia das Letras 1997); Hebe Mattos Das cores do silencio: os significados da liberdade no sudestre escravista século XIX (Campinas: EdUNICAMP 2014); and Flavio dos Santos Gomes Historias de Quilombolas: mocambos e comunidades de senzalas no Rio de Janeiro século XIX (Rio de Janeiro: Arquivo Nacional 1995).
M.G. Smith“Slavery and Emancipation in Two Societies,”Social and Economic Studies3 no. 3/4 (Dec. 1954): 239–290; and reprinted in Smith The Plural Society in the British West Indies (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press 1965) 116–161. Smith also explored slavery in a number of his other publications including The Economy of Hausa Communities of Zaria (London: H.M.S.O. 1955); Government in Zazzau. A Study of Government in the Hausa Chiefdom of Zaria in Northern Nigeria from 1800 to 1950 (London: Oxford University Press 1960); Development and Organization of the Fulani Chiefdom of Kaura Namoda 1809–1903 (Zaria: Papers of the Institute of Administration Ahmadu Bello University 1972); The Affairs of Daura: History and Change in a Hausa State 1800–1958 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press 1978). The study of his wife Mary Smith of the Hausa woman Baba of Karo should also be noted; see Mary Smith Baba of Karo. A Woman of the Moslem Hausa (London: Faber 1955).
Paul E. Lovejoy“Plantations in the Economy of the Sokoto Caliphate,”Journal of African History19 no. 3 (July 1978): 341–368; “The Characteristics of Plantations in the Nineteenth Century Sokoto Caliphate (Islamic West Africa)” American Historical Review 74 no. 4 (Dec. 1979): 1267–1292; and Slavery Commerce and Production in West Africa: Slave Society in the Sokoto Caliphate (Trenton NJ: Africa World Press 2005).
Mohammed Bashir Salau“Ribats and the Development of Plantations in the Sokoto Caliphate: A Case Study of Fanisau,”African Economic History34 (2006): 23–43; Ibid. The West African Slave Plantation: A Case Study (New York: Palgrave Macmillan 2011).
In the British census of1911Sokoto Province had 13 towns with populations over 6000 the largest being Sokoto with 21624 Isa with 18919 Kaura-Namoda with 13067 while Bongudu Gwandu Moriki Wurno Gusau Jega Talata Mafara Gummi Argungu and Birnin Kebbi had populations from 6000–10000. See Garba Na-dama “Urbanization in the Sokoto Caliphate: A Case Study of Gusau and Kaura-Namoda” in Usman Studies in the History of the Sokoto Caliphate. These estimates did not include the large number of people who moved to the towns from the adjacent countryside during the long dry season.
Dale Tomich“Atlantic History and World Economy: Concepts and Constructions,” in Proto Sociology20 (2004): 102–121; and Michael Zeuske “The Second Slavery: Modernity Mobility and Identity of Captives in Nineteenth-Century Cuba and the Atlantic World” in Javier Lavina and Michael Zeuske eds. The Second Slavery: Mass Slaveries and Modernity in the Americas and in the Atlantic Basin(Berlin: Lit Verlag2014) 113–142.