Orlando PattersonSlavery and Social Death. A Comparative Study (Cambridge: Harvard University Press1985); Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press 1977).
John BaileyThe Lost German Slave Girl: The Extraordinary True Story of Sally Miller and Her Fight for Freedom in Old New Orleans (New York: Grove Press2003) tells the story of a female slave who was so white that she was able to convince both a New Orleans court and a group of German immigrants that she was the daughter of an immigrant couple who had died after immigrating. On the way racial fictions operated in the West African Sahel see Bruce Hall History of Race in Muslim West Africa 1600–1960 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2011).
Alesssandro Stanziani ed.Le Travail contraint en Asie et en Europe (Paris: Editions de Maison des science de l’ homme2010); Alessandro Stanziani ed. Labour Bondage and Growth in Eurasia 17th–20th Centuries (Leiden: Brill 2012).