The So-Called Right of Civilisation in European Colonial Ideology, 16th to 20th Centuries

In: Journal of the History of International Law / Revue d'histoire du droit international
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  • 1 University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

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  • 1)

    Gerry Simpson, “Mabo, International Law, Terra Nullius and the Stories of Settlement: An Unresolved Jurisprudence”, Melbourne University Law Review, Vol. 19, No. 1 ( June 1993), pp. 195–210, p. 203.

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  • 6)

    Bartolomé de Las Casas, In Defense of the Indians: The Defence of the Most Reverend Lord, Don Fray Bartolomé de Las Casas, of the Order of Preachers Late Bishop of Chiapa, Against the Persecutors and Slanderers of the Peoples of the New World Discovered Across the Seas (De Kalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1974), pp. 340–341. See also Greg Marks, “Sovereign States vs Peoples: Indigenous Rights and the Origins of International Law”, Australian Indigenous Reporter, Vol. 5, No. 2 (2000), accessed from <http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/AILR/2000/14.html> on 2011-11-08.

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  • 9)

    Arthur Nussbaum, A Concise History of the Law of Nations (New York: Macmillan, 1954), p. 82.

  • 21)

    Emer de Vattel, The Law of Nations; or Principles of the Law of Nature Applied to the Conduct and Affairs of Nations and Sovereigns (Philadelphia: T. & J.W. Johnson, 1863), Bk.I, Ch.I, §81, pp. 35–36.

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  • 35)

    Paul Keal, European Conquest and the Rights of Indigenous Peoples: The Moral Backwardness of International Society (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), pp. 100–102.

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  • 39)

    Gaston Jèze, Étude théorique et pratique sur l’occupation comme mode d’acquérir les territoirs en Droit international (Paris: V. Giard & Brière, 1896), Bk.II, Ch.I, Section I:A, p. 111.

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  • 41)

    F. H. Hinsley, Sovereignty (London: C.A. Watts & Co. Ltd, 1986), p. 130.

  • 47)

    Lindley, The Acquisition and Government of Backward Territory in International Law, p. 21.

  • 51)

    Quoted in Anaya, Indigenous Peoples in International Law, p. 20.

  • 57)

    Westlake, International Law, p. 109. See also Simpson, “Mabo, International Law, Terra Nullius and the Stories of Settlement”, pp. 204–5. Grotius stated that, “whatever was originally occupied by the people, and has not since been distributed, must be considered the property of the people”. Grotius, De Jure Belli ac Pacis, Bk.II, Ch.VIII, §IX, p. 300.

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  • 59)

    Quoted in Anaya, Indigenous Peoples, p. 21.

  • 60)

    James Crawford, The Creation of States in International Law (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979), pp. 182–183. See also Westlake, International Law, p. 64.

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  • 61)

    Lindley, The Acquisition and Government of Backward Territory in International Law, pp. 18 and 45. More recently, Simpson has similarly noted that Westlake’s view “tended to be” in the “minority”. See Simpson, “Mabo, International Law, Terra Nullius and the Stories of Settlement”, note, p. 201.

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  • 63)

    Ernest Nys, Études de Droit international et de Droit politique (Brussels: Alfred Castaigne, 1896), p. 272 and “The Codification of International Law”, American Journal of International Law Vol. 5, No.4 (October 1911), pp. 871–900, p. 876.

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  • 64)

    Joseph Hornung, “Civilisés et barbares”, Revue de Droit international et de Législation comparée, Vol. 17 (1885), pp. 447–470, p. 469. The Swiss jurist Hornung contrasted the outlook of Rousseau and Kant with that of Hegel, condemning Hegel’s view that the “barbares, having neither culture, nor philosophy, are nothing.” Hornung stated that “every individual or collective soul, however uncultivated and humble it be, must be respected in its dignity and liberty See Georg F. Hegel, Hegel’s Philosophy of Right, Trans. T. M. Knox (Clarendon: Oxford University Press, 1942), §331 and 351, pp. 212–213 and 219. On Kant’s influence Jèze, Étude théorique, Bk.II, Ch.I, Section I:A-B, pp. 104–5; note, pp. 107 and 115.

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  • 67)

    Eugène Ortolan, Des moyens d’acquérir le domaine international ou propriété d’État entre les nations (Paris: Amyot, 1851), p. 50.

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  • 86)

    Lindley, The Acquisition and Government of Backward Territory in International Law, p. 18. See also William Edward Hall, A Treatise on International Law [1880] ed. J.B. Atlay, 5th Edn (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1904), Pt.II, Ch.II, p. 100.

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  • 89)

    Yasuaki Onuma, “When was the Law of International Society Born? – An Inquiry of the History of International Law from an Intercivilizational Perspective”, Journal of the History of International Law, Vol.2 No.1 (July 2000), pp. 1–66, p. 40.

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  • 90)

    Westlake, International Law, p. 108.

  • 91)

    Quoted in Crawford, The Creation of States, pp. 178–179.

  • 92)

    Anthony Anghie, “Find the Peripheries: Sovereignty and Colonialism in Nineteenth-Century International Law”, Harvard International Law Journal, Vol. 40 No. 1 (Winter, 1999), pp. 1–80, p. 59.

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  • 93)

    Crawford, The Creation of States, p. 179.

  • 94)

    Lindley, The Acquisition and Government of Backward Territory in International Law, pp. 33 and 46.

  • 101)

    Pauka, Kultur, Fortschritt und Reziprozität: Die Begriffsgeschichte des zivilisierten Staates im Völkerrecht, p. 253.

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