Some Dutchmen Desperately Trying to Get to Lille. The Batavian Republic and the 1797 Anglo-French Peace Negotiations

in Journal of the History of International Law / Revue d'histoire du droit international
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References

2

On asymmetric alliances, see Marco Cesa, Allies Yet Rivals (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2010), pp. 56–61.

5

Elie van Bogaert, Volkenrecht (Antwerp: Kluwer, 1982), pp. 143–144; Denis Monière, L’indépendance (Montréal: Les Presses de l’Université de Montréal, 1992), p. 43; Hans Morgenthau, Politics Among Nations (New York: Alfred Knopf, 1948), p. 331; Adam Watson, The Evolution of International Society (London: Taylor & Francis, 1992), p. 313.

8

Bernard Gilson, The Conceptual System of Sovereign Equality (Louvain: Peeters, 1984), p. 243; Kooijmans, Legal Equality 1964 (n. 3), p. 138; Martti Koskenniemi, From Apology to Utopia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), pp. 89–124; Randall Lesaffer, Europa: een zoektocht naar vrede? (Louvain: Universitaire Pers Leuven, 1999), p. 118; Georg Friedrich von Martens, Einleitung in das positive Europäische Völkerrecht (Göttingen: Johann Christian Dieterich, 1796), p. 140; Simpson, Great Powers 2004 (n. 4), pp. 27 and 33.

16

Ian Clark, Hegemony in International Society (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), pp. 18–28.

26

Heinz Duchhardt, Gleichgewicht der Kräfte, Convenance, Europäisches Konzert (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1976), p. 4; Heinz Duchhardt, Handbuch der Geschichte der Internationalen Beziehungen Vol. 4 (Paderborn: Schöningh, 1997), p. 58; Lesaffer, Europa 1999 (n. 8), p. 330.

43

See Raymond Kubben, Regeneration and Hegemony (Leiden-Boston: Brill Publishers, 2011), pp. 461–462.

45

Marc Belissa, ‘Garran de Coulon, la conquête de la Belgique et l’élaboration d’un nouveau droit public’, Revue du Nord (1999), 549–560; Philip Bobbitt, The Shield of Achilles (New York: Anchor Books, 2003), p. 531; Hippolyte Suquet, Étude juridique des grands traités de paix de Westphalie à Campo-Formio (Paris, 1903), p. 105.

46

Sharon Korman, The Right of Conquest (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), pp. 8–9.

48

See Stephen Neff, War and the Law of Nations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), pp. 95–102.

53

François Laurent, Histoire du droit des gens et des relations internationales (Paris: Durand, 1869), pp. 68–69.

54

Marc Belissa, Fraternité universelle et intérêt national (Paris: Kimé, 1995), pp. 79–84; Korman, Right of Conquest 1996 (n. 46), p. 37.

66

19 September 1795, British declaration of war; Tobias Asser, Geschiedenis der beginselen van het Nederlandsche staatsregt omtrent het bestuur der buitenlandsche betrekkingen (Leiden PhD thesis, 1860), p. 47; C. Smit, Diplomatieke geschiedenis van Nederland (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1950), p. 114.

67

2 May 1796, Dagverhaal der handelingen van de Nationale Vergadering representeerende het Volk van Nederland, 31; http://192.87.107.12:8080/decreten.

68

Tim Blanning, The Pursuit of Glory (London: Allen Lane, 2007), p. 612; Alice Carter, Neutrality or Commitment (London: Edward Arnold, 1975), p. 106; Joost van Hamel Nederland tusschen de mogendheden (Amsterdam: Van Holkema & Warendorf, 1918), pp. 270–271.

72

Jonathan Israel, De Republiek 1477–1806 (Franeker: Van Wijnen, 2001), p. 1243; Louis Legrand (trans. H. Pyttersen), Geschiedenis der Bataafsche Republiek (Arnhem: Gouda Quint, 1895), pp. 112–113.

78

30 September 1796, Decree of the Directoire; Archives Nationales af iii*, Directoire exécutif ans ivviii, Registres, no. 20.

79

26 October 1796, Delacroix to Meyer; Archives du Ministère des Affaires Etrangères (aae), Correspondance politique (cp), Hollande, no. 593.

80

18 October 1796, Commissie van Buitenlandsche Zaaken to Lestevenon and Pasteur; na, 2.01.08 Archieven van het Departement van Buitenlandse Zaken 1796–1810, no. 102.

81

2 November 1796, Noël to the Commissie van Buitenlandsche Zaaken; na, 2.01.08, no. 102.

82

4 November 1796, Commissie van Buitenlandsche Zaaken to Noël; na, 2.01.08, no. 102.

83

Marc Belissa, Repenser l’ordre européen (Paris: Kimé, 2006), pp. 348–355; Jean-Pierre Bois, ‘La rupture de l’équilibre européen par la Révolution française’, in Thierry Lentz (ed.), Napoléon et l’Europe (Paris: Fayard, 2005), pp. 55–74, 65; Droz, Histoire diplomatique 2005 (n. 69), p. 206; Schroeder, Transformation 1994 (n. 77), pp. 210–211.

84

Charles Ballot, Les négociations de Lille 1797 (Paris: Cornély, 1910), p. 38; Guyot, Le Directoire et la paix 1911 (n. 69), pp. 290–293; Schroeder, Transformation 1994 (n. 77), p. 164.

86

26 October 1796, Directoire to Malmesbury, an af iii* 176; 12 November 1796, Malmesbury to Delacroix, aae cp Angleterre 590; 17 December 1796, Memoire confidentiel sur la paix avec l’Espagne et la Hollande, aae cp Angleterre 590 and na 2.01.01.01, Archieven van de wetgevende colleges 1796–1810, no. 189; see also Guyot, Le Directoire et la paix 1911 (n. 69), pp. 277 and 296; Kubben, Regeneration and Hegemony 2011 (n. 43), pp. 567–577.

87

17 December 1796, Memoire confidentiel sur la paix avec l’Espagne et la Hollande, aae cp Angleterre 590 and na 2.01.01.01 no. 189.

88

19 December 1796, Delacroix to Malmesbury; aae cp Angleterre 590; see also Guyot, Le Directoire et la paix 1911 (n. 69), pp. 298–301.

89

23 December 1796, Commissie van Buitenlandsche Zaaken to Lestevenon, Pasteur, and Meyer, na 2.01.08 no. 102; 3 January 1797, Noël to Nationale Vergadering, na 2.01.01.01 no. 189 and aae cp Hollande 595 and na 2.01.01.01 no. 189; 6 January 1797, Commissie van Buitenlandsche Zaaken to Noël, na 2.01.08 no. 396.

93

25 June 1797, Notes remises sur les stipulations à faire en faveur des alliés de la République, aae cp Angleterre 591.

94

8 July 1797, Draft Treaty Presented by Malmesbury, aae cp Angleterre 591.

95

26 June 1797, Instructions pour la paix conclure entre la République française et Sa Majesté Britannique aux citoyens Le Tourneur, Le Pelley de Pléville et Maret, aae cp Angleterre 590.

96

16 June 1797, Minutes Commissie van Buitenlandsche Zaaken, na 2.01.08 no. 26; 28 June 1797, Secret minutes Commissie van Buitenlandsche Zaaken, na 2.01.08 no. 55B; 25 July 1797, Secret minutes Commissie van Buitenlandsche Zaaken, na 2.01.08 no. 55B; 28 July 1797, Decree by the Nationale Vergadering, na 2.01.08 no. 360; 3 August 1797, Secret minutes and decree Commissie van Buitenlandsche Zaaken, na 2.01.08 no. 360 and no. 55B.

97

E.g. 27 July 1797, Meyer to Van Leyden, na 1.02.14 no. 598.

98

10 June 1797, Delacroix to Noël, aae cp Angleterre 590; 13 June 1797, Preliminary instructions to the French delegation, aae cp Angleterre 591; 18 June 1797, Noël to the Commissie van Buitenlandsche Zaaken, na 2.01.08 no. 231; 21 June 1797, Meyer to Van Leyden, na 1.02.14 no. 598; 9 July 1797, Delacroix to Meyer, na 1.02.14 nos. 601 and 610.

99

26 June 1797, Meyer to Delacroix, na 2.01.08 no. 601; 5 July 1797, Secret minutes Commissie van Buitenlandsche Zaaken, na 2.01.08 no. 55B; 5 July 1797, French internal memorandum on Batavian request for admittance, aae cp Hollande 596; 13 July 1797, Secret minutes Commissie van Buitenlandsche Zaaken, na 2.01.08 no. 55B; 17 July 1797, Meyer to Delacroix, na 1.02.14 no. 599; 29 July 1797, Meyer to Talleyrand, na 1.02.14, Legatiearchief Frankrijk, no. 599; 3 August 1797, Secret minutes Commissie van Buitenlandsche Zaaken, na 2.01.08 no. 360 and no. 55B; 9 August 1797, De Vos van Steenwijk to Commissie van Buitenlandsche Zaaken, na 2.01.08 no. 360; 14 August 1797, Draft letter to Talleyrand sent to Paris on behalf of the Commissie van Buitenlandsche Zaaken by Van Leyden, na 2.01.08 no. 360.

100

29 July 1797, Meyer to Talleyrand, na 1.02.14 no. 599.

101

24 July 1797, Secret minutes Commissie van Buitenlandsche Zaaken, na 2.01.08 no. 55B.

103

9 August 1797, De Vos van Steenwijk to Commissie van Buitenlandsche Zaaken, na 2.01.08 no. 360.

104

29 July 1797, Meyer to Talleyrand, na 1.02.14 no. 599.

105

Marc Belissa, ‘La diplomatie et les traités dans la pensée des Lumières: “négociation universelle” ou “école du mensonge”?’, Revue d’histoire diplomatique (1999), pp. 291–318, 314–315; Marc Belissa, ‘Peace treaties, bonne foi and European civility in the Enlightenment’, in Lesaffer, Peace Treaties 2004 (n. 28), pp. 241–253, 244.

106

13 July 1797, Directoire to French delegation, na 2.01.08 no. 360 and aae cp Angleterre 591; 15 July 1797, French delegation to Malmesbury, aae cp Angleterre 591.

108

5 July 1797, Relations Extérieures 1e division politique, Note, aae cp Hollande 596; 23 August 1797, Ministres plenipotentiaries de la République française charges de traiter de la paix avec l’Angleterre to Talleyrand, aae cp Angleterre 591 and aae cp Angleterre Supplément 30.

111

9 August 1797, De Vos van Steenwijk to Commissie van Buitenlandsche Zaaken, na 2.01.08 no. 360.

112

10 August 1797, Talleyrand to the Batavian representatives in Paris, na 2.01.08 no. 360.

113

20 September 1797, Batavian commissioners to Commissie van Buitenlandsche Zaaken, na 2.01.08 no. 360.

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