Steamshipping Companies and Transmigration Patterns: the Use of European Cities as Hubs during the Era of Mass Migration to the us

in Journal of Migration History
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The article gives a business perspective on the development of transit routes during the long nineteenth century transatlantic migration from Europe to the us. It first stresses that due to the economic interests generated by transatlantic migrant transport the political economy behind early migration policies centred much more on how people moved rather than who was doing the moving. These had a lasting impact on transit routes. With nationalism on the rise and economic liberalism declining, measures to direct transmigrants to national ports and companies radicalised. Against this background and to neutralise competitive pressures shipping companies united in cartels to protect established routes. Their perspective gives new insights on how transit routes developed; on transit costs; the service it included and the quality thereof. It explains how shipping lines extended their services in port-cities and inland transport hubs to guarantee a smooth transit as an integrated part of their trade.

Steamshipping Companies and Transmigration Patterns: the Use of European Cities as Hubs during the Era of Mass Migration to the us

in Journal of Migration History

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References

3

Carl Strikwerda‘Tides of migrations, currents of history: The state, economy, and the transatlantic movement of labor in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries’International Review of Social History 44:3 (1999) 367–394 374; J. Torpey The invention of the passport. Surveillance citizenship and the state (New York 2000) 57–143.

4

Torsten Feys‘The visible hand of shipping interests in American migration policies 1815–1914’Tijdschrift voor Sociale en Economische Geschiedenis 7:1 (2010) 38–62.

7

FeysThe battle21–48; Sebak ‘A transatlantic migratory bypass’ 14.

8

JustOst und südosteuropäische97–123; Katja Wüstenbecker ‘Hamburg and the transit of east European emigrants’ in: Andreas Fahrmeir Olivier Faron and Patrick Weil (eds) Migration control in the North Atlantic world (New York 2003) 223–236; Tobias Brinkmann ‘Why Paul Nathan attacked Albert Ballin: The transatlantic mass migration and the privatization of Prussia’s eastern border inspection 1886–1914’ Central European History 43:1 (2010) 47–83 57–59; Feys The battle 237–238; Barbara Lüthi ‘Germs of anarchy crime disease and degeneracy. Jewish migration to the u.s. and the medicalization of the European borders around 1900’ in: Tobias Brinkmann (ed) Points of passage 27–44.

10

JustOst und südosteuropäische 89–109; Wüstenbecker ‘Hamburg and the transit’ 227–230; Feys The battle 159.

13

KeelingThe business 107–142. Also see the article in this issue by Katalin Straner.

16

Torsten Feys‘Prepaid tickets to ride to the New World: The New York Continental Conference and transatlantic steerage fares 1885–1895’Revista de Historia Economica 26:2 (2008) 173–204 178–180.

17

Feys‘Prepaid tickets’179–200.

18

FeysThe battle63 195–97.

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Feys‘Prepaid tickets’188.

21

FeysThe battle128–153.

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MurkenDie grossen363–365; Feys ‘Prepaid tickets’ 198; Feys The Battle 146–152 187.

29

FeysThe battle196–200.

33

FeysThe battle77–79.

35

FeysThe battle80–84.

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FeysThe battle99–107.

40

Day‘Credit capital and community’67.

44

Immigration CommissionReportiv p. 24.

46

Feys‘Prepaid tickets’ 188–195; Lüthi ‘Germs of Anarchy’ 27–46.

52

Wüstenbecker‘Hamburg and the transit’ 230; Lüthi ‘Germs of anarchy’ 27–46; Kvale Ehlers ‘Emigrant trains’ 63–84; Also see the article in this issue by Tobias Brinkmann.

56

Kvale Ehlers‘Emigrant trains’63–84; Also see the article in this issue by Alison Schmidt.

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