From Historicism to Historical Sociology: An Examination of Nikolai Aleksandrovich Rozhkov’s Nomothetic Scheme of Historical Evolution

in Journal of Modern Russian History and Historiography
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This article takes as its point of departure Thaden’s claim that the paradigm shift from historicism to historical sociology in Russian historiography at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth century was an abortive one. It demonstrates that Nikolai Aleksandrovich Rozhkov (1868-1927) not only created the first post-Kliuchevskian historical sociology but that he did so using a Comtean nomothetic approach to social evolution. This is the first time that the theoretical underpinnings of Rozhkov’s interpretation of history as encapsulated in his laws of social statics have been explored in any detail. This article draws the conclusion that the positivist tradition created opportunities for cross-fertilization with other major currents of thought, including Marxism, and sheds new light on this relationship.

From Historicism to Historical Sociology: An Examination of Nikolai Aleksandrovich Rozhkov’s Nomothetic Scheme of Historical Evolution

in Journal of Modern Russian History and Historiography

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References

2)

 See: A.S. PopovV.O. Kliuchevskii i ego “shkola”: sintez istorii i sotsiologii (Moscow: MPU “Signal’”2001); N.V. Grishina “Shkola V.O. Kliuchevskogo” v istoricheskoi nauke i rossiiskoi kul’ture (Cheliabinsk: Entsiklopediia 2010); S.N. Pogodin “Sotsiologicheskii metod V.O. Kliuchevskogo” Zhurnal sotsiologii i sotsial’noi antropologii 1 (2004): 40-49; and S.I. Tkhorzhevskii “V.O. Kliuchevskii kak sotsiolog i politicheskii myslitel’” Dela i dni 2 (1921): 152-79.

3)

G.P. Fedotov“Rossiia Kliuchevskago”Sovremennye zapiski 50 (1932): 354; S.S. Brazevich “N.A. Rozhkov: interpretatsiia russkoi istorii” Sotsiologiia 3/4 (2006): 49-51.

4)

R.F. ByrnesV.O. Kliuchevskii Historian of Russia (Bloomington: Indiana University Press1995): 153. See also: Terence Emmons “Kliuchevskii’s Pupils” in T. Sanders (Ed.) Historiography of Imperial Russia: The Profession and Writing of History in a Multinational State (Armonk New York: M. E. Sharpe 1999): 125-126.

5)

J. Gonzalez“In Pursuit of a Historical Tradition: N.A. Rozhkov’s Scientific Laws of History”Studies in East European ThoughtVol. 59 No. 4 (2007): 309-346. See also: N.N. Tarasova “O filosofskikh i teoretiko-metodologicheskikh vzgliadakh N.A. Rozhkova (po rabotam 1893-1907gg.)” in Istoriia i istoriki. Istoriograficheskii sbornik (Moscow: Nauka 1990): 258-283; G.N. Kocheshkov Teoretiko-metodologicheskie vzgliady N.A. Rozhkova (Iaroslavl’: IaGPU 2008); 47 -63; A.S. Popov’s “N.A. Rozhkov o sotsiologicheskikh osnovakh istorii” in Gumanitarnye nauki i sovremennost’. Ezhegodnyi sbornik nauchnykh trudov Vyp. 4 (Penza: PTU 1998): 180-185; I.A. Andreeva Istoricheskaia kontseptsiia N.A. Rozhkova Unpublished Ph.D Thesis (kandidatskaia dissertatsiia) Omskii gosudarstvennyi universitet (1995): 128-167; and R.A. Averbukh “Evoliutsiia sotsiologicheskikh vozzrenii N.A. Rozhkova” Uchenye zapiski instituta istorii Rossiiskoi assotsiatsii nauchno-issledovatel’skikh institutov obshchestvennykh nauk (RANION) 5 (1928): 15-68.

6)

T.M. Bohn“Historische Soziologie im vorrevolutionären Russland”Historische Zeitschriftvol. 265 (1997): 372.

8)

E. Thaden“Historicism, N. A. Polevoi, and Rewriting Russian History,” East European Quarterlyvol. 38 no. 3 (Fall 2004): 306.

11)

KliuchevskiiIbid.1: 35.

12)

M. Tsvibak“Rozhkov - istorik”Kommunisticheskaia mysl’ (Tashkent 1927) no. 4: 10-11. See also: G. Vernadsky Russian Historiography: A History (Massachusetts: Nordland Publishing Company 1978): 276.

13)

 See: N.A. RozhkovGorod i derevnia v russkoi istorii. Kratkii ocherk ekonomicheskoi istorii Rossii (St. Petersburg: I.N. Skorokhodov1902).

15)

KliuchevskiiSochineniia1: 39 45. See also: A.S. Popov “Sravnitel’no-istoricheskii metod v trudakh N.A. Rozhkova” in Sotsial’nye nauki: istoriia teoriia metodologiia. Vyp. IV (Moscow: MPU Signal’ 2002): 104-119.

21)

RozhkovOsnovnye zakony9. See also: J.S. Mill A System of Logic Ratiocinative and Inductive: Being a Connected View of the Principles of Evidence and the Methods of Scientific Investigation (London: Longmans Green and Co. 1956): 598.

23)

RozhkovOsnovnye zakony8.

26)

RozhkovOsnovnye zakony4. See also: Rozhkov Obzor chast’ I: 5.

27)

 See: N. A. Rozhkov“Uspekhi sovremennoi sotsiologii v ikh sootnoshenii s istoriei”Obrazovanieno. 12 (1898): 19 and Rozhkov Osnovnye zakony 3.

28)

Rozhkov“Uspekhi sovremennoi sotsiologii”19.

29)

RozhkovOsnovnye zakony4.

31)

Rozhkov“Uspekhi sovremennoi sotsiologii”19.

33)

Rozhkov“Uspekhi sovremennoi sotsiologii”26.

38)

RozhkovOsnovnye zakony17-18. Rozhkov’s italics.

44)

Rozhkov“Uspekhi sovremennoi sotsiologii”20.

45)

RozhkovOsnovnye zakony12-15.

46)

RozhkovOsnovnye zakony15.

48)

RozhkovOsnovnye zakony15.

62)

N.A. RozhkovEvoliutsiia khoziaistvennykh form (St. Petersburg: Molot1905): 4-5.

66)

RozhkovOsnovnye zakony25-26.

68)

M.V. NechkinaRusskaia istoriia v osveshchenii ekonomicheskogo materializma (istoriograficheskii ocherk) (Kazan’: Gosizdat1922) 69. See also: White M.N. Pokrovsky 39.

69)

N.A. Rozhkov“Proiskhozhdenie soslovii v Rossii”Obrazovanienos. 7-8 (1899): 14.

72)

RozhkovOsnovnye zakony68.

74)

R.A. Averbukh“Evoliutsiia sotsiologicheskikh vozzrenii”Uchenye zapiski instituta istorii (RANION)Moscow (1928) 5: 42.

81)

RozhkovOsnovnye zakony37.

86)

RozhkovOsnovnye zakony74.

93)

Averbukh“Evoliutsiia”44.

96)

RozhkovOsnovnye zakony42.

98)

RozhkovIstoricheskie175 184.

100)

RozhkovIstoricheskie257. See also: Bychkov and Korzun Vvedenie v istoriografiiu 136-137.

103)

RozhkovOsnovnye zakony83-88. See: Andreeva Istoricheskaia kontseptsiia N.A. Rozhkova 164-167.

105)

VolobuevN.A. Rozhkov: Istorik i obshchestvennyi deiatel’273.

110)

Bychkov and KorzunVvedenie v istoriografiiu133.

111)

RozhkovRusskaia istoriia1: 13.

115)

G.D. Snooks“Uncovering the Laws of Global History,” Social Evolution and Historyvol. 1 no. 1 (July 2002): 25-53.

117)

VolobuevN.A. Rozhkov: Istorik i obshchestvennyi deiatel’292-304. See also: Popov V.O. Kliuchevskii i ego “shkola 236

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