Cognitive Organization of Cultural Values: Cross-Cultural Analysis of Data from Sweden and the usa

in Journal of Cognition and Culture
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.


Have Institutional Access?

Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?


A considerable body of data has been amassed to explain values structure and transmission. Values dimensions have been extracted and compared across societies in a number of values studies, many of which use quantitative methodology. However, there is little quantitative evidence of significant cross-cultural variation in values. This counterintuitive outcome has given rise to a doubt if an effective quantified comparison of values across societies is possible. The major reason for this objection to use quantitative techniques in cross-cultural values research is the loss of culture-specific meaning in quantitative procedures. Using ratings data from two American and Swedish samples the present research demonstrates that it is possible to compare values data and detect meaningful cross-cultural differences in values across societies, provided that several conceptual alterations in the instrument are made. Namely, it is proposed that collective- and individual level constructs should be separated when the informants are asked about their values. The traditional approach to values as implicitly individual construct is critiqued. The paper proposes to distinguish formulations of individual-level values items (that are more closely associated with personal projects and conative aspects) from formulations of cultural-identity relevant collective-level values items (which are acquired in more uniform processes of social learning and institutionalization). When elicitation of values considers this distinction during data collection, the depression of cross-cultural differences in values disappears.

Cognitive Organization of Cultural Values: Cross-Cultural Analysis of Data from Sweden and the usa

in Journal of Cognition and Culture



AntweilerC. Universelle Erhebungsmetoden und locale Kognition am Beispiel urbaner Umweltkognition in Süd-Sulawesi/Indonesien Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 1995 118 251 287

BardiA.SchwartzS. Values and behavior: Strength and structure of relations Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 2003 29 1207 1220

BardoJ. W.YeagerS. J. Consistency of response style across styles of response formats Perceptual and Motor Skills 1982 55 307 309

BartlettF. C. Remembering: A study in experimental and social psychology 1932 Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press

BernardM. M.GebauerJ. E.MaioG. R. Cultural estrangement and the role of personal and societal value discrepancies Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 2006 32 78 92

BondM. H. Finding universal dimensions of individual variation in multicultural studies of values: The Rokeach and Chinese Value Surveys Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1988 55 1009 1115

BontempoR. Translation fidelity of psychological scales. An item response theory analysis of an Individualism-Collectivism scale Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 1993 24 149 166

ChanD. Functional relations among constructs in the same content domain at different levels of analysis: A typology of composition models Journal of Applied Psychology 1998 83 234 246

ChenS.BoucherH. C.ParkerTapias M. The relational self revealed: Integrative conceptualization and implications for interpersonal life Psychological Bulletin 2006 132 151 179

CooperM. L.AlbinoA. W.OrcuttH. K.WilliamsN. RholesW. S.SimpsonJ. A. Attachment styles and intrapersonal adjustment: A longitudinal study from adolescence into young adulthood Adult attachment: Theory research and clinical implications 2004 New York, NY The Guilford Press 438 466

CozzarelliC.KarafaJ. A. Cultural estrangement and terror management theory Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 1998 24 253 367

CreswellJ. D.WelchW. T.TaylorS. E.ShermanD. K.GruenewaldT. L.MannT. Affirmation of personal values buffers neuroendocrine and psychological stress responses Psychological Science 2005 16 846 851

CullumJ.HartonH. C. Cultural evolution: Interpersonal influence, issue importance, and the development of shared attitudes in college residence halls Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 2007 33 1327 1339

D’AndradeR. G. Study of personal and cultural values: American Japanese and Vietnamese 2008 New York, NY Palgrave Macmillan

DressierW. What’s cultural about biocultural research? Ethos 2005 33 20 45

DressierW. IceG.JamesG. D. Cultural dimensions of the stress process: Measurement issues in fieldwork Measuring stress in humans: A practical guide for the field 2007 Cambridge Cambridge University Press 27 59

DresslerW. W.BalieiroM. C.RibeiroR. P.dosSantos J. E. Cultural consonance, a 5HT2A receptor polymorphism, and depressive symptoms: A longitudinal study of gene X culture interaction in urban Brazil American Journal of Human Biology 2009 21 91 97

DeVellisR. T. Scale development. Theory and applications 2003 26 2nd edn. Thousand Oaks, CA Sage Applied Social Science Research Methods Series

HagenaarsJ.HalmanL.MoorA. ArtsW.HagenaarsJ.HalmanL. Exploring Europe’s basic value map The cultural diversity of European unity. Findings explanations and reflections from the European Values Study 2003 Leiden Brill 23 58

HalbwachsM. On collective memory 1992 Chicago, IL Chicago University Press

HeineS. J. Where is the evidence of cross-cultural self-enhancement? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2005 89 531 538

HouseR. J.HangesP. J.JavidanM.DorfmanP. W.GuptaV. Culture leadership and organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 societies 2004 Thousand Oaks, CA Sage

InglehartR. Aggregate stability and individual-level flux in mass belief systems: The level of analysis paradox The American Political Science Review 1985 79 97 116

InglehartR. Human values and social change. Findings from the values surveys 2003 Leiden Brill

JaskyteK.DresslerW. Studying culture as an integral aggregate variable: Organizational culture and innovation in a group of nonprofit organizations Field Methods 2004 16 265 284

KashimaY. Maintaining cultural stereotypes in the serial reproduction of narratives Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 2000 26 594 604

KashimaY.YamagichiS.KimU.ChoiS.-C.GelfandM. J.YukiM. Culture, gender, and self: A perspective from individualism-collectivism research Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1999 69 925 937

KasserT.KoestnerR.LekesN. Early family experiences and adult values: A 26 year longitudinal study Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 2002 28 826 835

KitayamaS. Culture and basic psychological processes – toward a system view of culture: Comment on Oyserman et al. (2002) Psychological Bulletin 2002 128 89 96

KleinK.BuhlConn A.SmithB.SpeerSorra J. Is everyone in agreement? An exploration of within-group agreement in employee perceptions of the work environment Journal of Applied Psychology 2001 86 3 16

KnafoA.PlominR. Parental discipline and affection and children’s prosocial behavior: Genetic and environmental links Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2006 90 147 164

LeungK.BondM. H. On the empirical identification of dimensions for cross-cultural comparisons Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 1989 20 133 151

MaltsevaK. Collective values and values of collectivities 2008 Paper presented at the Society for Anthropological Sciences Annual Meeting 20-23 February 2008 New Orleans, LA

MaltsevaK. Values and norms of prosocial behavior in modern Sweden 2010 Doctoral Dissertation University of Connecticut Storrs CT

MaltsevaK. Using correspondence analysis of scales as part of mixed methods design to access cultural models in ethnographic fieldwork: Prosocial cooperation in Sweden Journal of Mixed Methods Research 2014 in press doi:10.1177/1558689814525262

MatsumotoD. The discrepancy between consensual-level culture and individual-level culture Culture and Psychology 2003 9 89 95

OishiS.DienerE.SuhE.LucasR. E. Value as moderator in subjective well-being Journal of Personality 1999 67 157 184

OishiS.DienerE.NapaScollon C.SchimmackU.Kim-PrietoC.ChoiD.-W. The values-congruence model of memory for emotional experiences: An explanation for cultural differences in emotional self-reports Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2007 93 897 905

PengK.NisbettR. E.WongN. Y. C. Validity problems comparing values across cultures and possible solutions Psychological Methods 1997 2 329 344

PhaletK.SchönpflugU. Intergenerational transmission of collectivism and achievement values in two acculturation contexts: The case of Turkish families in Germany and Turkish and Moroccan families in the Netherlands Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 2001 32 186 201

PietromonacoP. R.FeldmanBarrett L. The internal working models concept: What do we really know about the self in relation to others? Review of General Psychology 2000 4 155 175

RobertsB. W.KuncelN. R.ShinerR.CaspiA.GoldbergL. R. The power of personality: The comparative validity of personality traits, socioeconomic status, and cognitive ability for predicting important life outcomes Perspectives on Psychological Science 2007 2 13 345

RohanM. J. A rose by any name? The values construct Personality and Social Psychology Review 2000 4 255 277

RokeachM. The nature of human values 1973 New York, NY Free Press

RomneyA. K.WellerS. C.BatchelderW. H. Culture and consensus: A theory of culture and informant accuracy American Anthropologist 1986 88 313 338

RomneyA. K.MooreC. C.RuschC. D. Cultural universals: Measuring the semantic structure of emotion terms in English and Japanese Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1997 94 5489 5494

SchwartzS. H. Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 1992 25 1 6

SchwartzS. H. VinkenH.SoetersJ.EsterP. Mapping and interpreting cultural differences around the world Comparing cultures: Dimensions of culture in a comparative perspective 2004 Leiden Brill 43 73

SchwartzS. H.BardiA. Value hierarchies across cultures Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 2001 32 268 90

SchwartzS. H.MelechG.LehmannA.BurgessS.HarrisM. Extending the cross-cultural validity of the theory of basic human values with a different method of measurement Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 2001 32 519 542

SchönpflugU. Cultural transmission: Psychological developmental social and methodological aspects 2009 Cambridge Cambridge University Press

SearleJ. R. The construction of social reality 1995 New York, NY Simon and Schuster

SoenesB.DuriezB.VansteenkisteM.GoossensL. The intergenerational transmission of empathy-related responding in adolescence: The role of maternal support Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 2007 33 299 311

StinsonD. A.LogelC.ShepherdS.ZannaM. D. Rewriting the self-fulfilling prophecy of social rejection: Self-affirmation improves relational security and social behavior up to 2 months later Psychological Science 2011 22 1145 1149

StrombergC.BoehnkeK. SchmuckP.SheldonK. M. Person/society value congruence and well-being: The role of acculturating strategies Life goals and well-being. Toward a positive psychology of human striving 2001 Göttingen Hogrefe and Huber 37 57

ThomsenC. J.LavineH.KouniosJ. Social value and attitude concept in semantic memory: Relational structure, concept strength, and the fan effect Social Cognition 1996 14 191 225

VittersøJ. Personality trait and subjective well-being: Emotional stability, not extraversion is probably the important factor Personality and Individual Differences 2001 31 903 914

WellerS. C. Frequently asked questions about consensus analysis. Field Methods 2007 19 339 368

WellerS. C.RomneyA. K. Metric scaling. Correspondence analysis. Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences 1990 Volume 75 Newberry Park, CA Sage Publications

ZentnerM.RenaudO. Origins of adolescents’ ideal self: An intergenerational perspective Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2007 92 557 574


Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 29 29 17
Full Text Views 15 15 14
PDF Downloads 2 2 2
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0