Does this Smile Make me Look White? Exploring the Effects of Emotional Expressions on the Categorization of Multiracial Children

in Journal of Cognition and Culture
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Abstract

Previous research shows that Multiracial adults are categorized as more Black than White (i.e., Black-categorization bias), especially when they have angry facial expressions. The present research examined the extent to which these categorization patterns extended to Multiracial children, with both White and Black participants. Consistent with past research, both White and Black participants categorized Multiracial children as more Black than White. Counter to what was found with Multiracial adults in previous research, emotional expressions (e.g., happy vs. angry) did not moderate how Multiracial children were categorized. Additionally, for Black participants, anti-White bias was correlated with categorizing Multiracial children as more White than Black. The developmental and cultural implications of these data are discussed, as they provide new insight into the important role that age plays in Multiracial person perception.

Sections

References

Bargh, J. A., Chen, M., & Burrows, L (1996). Automaticity of social behavior: Direct effects of trait construct and stereotype activation on action. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 230244. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.71.2.230

Blascovich, J., Wyer, N. A., Swart, L. A., & Kibler, J. L. (1997). Racism and racial categorization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 13641372. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.72.6.1364

Bobo, L. (1998). Race, interests, and beliefs about affirmative action: Unanswered questions and new directions. American Behavioral Scientist, 41, 9851003. doi: 10.1177/0002764298041007009

Chen, J., & Hamilton, D. (2012). Natural ambiguities: Racial categorization of Multiracial individuals. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 152164. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2011.10.005

Chen, J., Moons, W., Gaither, S., Hamilton, D., and Sherman, J. (2014). Motivation to control prejudice predicts categorization of Multiracials. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40, 590603. doi: 10.1177/0146167213520457

Davis, F. J. (1991). Who is black? One nation’s definition. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Devine, P. G. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 518. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.56.1.5

Dunham, Y. (2011). An angry = outgroup effect. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 668671. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2011.01.003

Dunham, Y., & Olson, K. R. (2016). Beyond discrete categories: Studying multiracial, intersex, and transgender children will strengthen basic developmental science. Journal of Cognition and Development, 17, 642644, doi: 10.1080/15248372.2016.1195388

Federico, C. M., & Sidanius, J. (2002). Racism, ideology, and affirmative action revisited: The antecedents and consequences of ‘principled objections’ to affirmative action. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 488502. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.82.4.488

Franco, M. G., & Franco, S. A. (2016). Impact of identify invalidation for Black Multiracial people: The importance of race of perpetrator. Journal of Black Psychology, Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/0095798415604796

Franco, M. G., Katz, R., & O’Brien, K. M. (2016). Forbidden identities: A qualitative examination of racial identity invalidation for Black/White biracial individuals. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 50, 96109. doi: 10.1016/j/ijintrel/2015/12/004

Goff, P., Jackson, M., Leone, B., Culotta, C., & Ditomasso, N. (2014). The essence of innocence: Consequences of dehumanizing Black children. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 106, 526545. doi: 10.1037/a0035663

Harris, H. L. (2013). A national survey of school counselors’ perceptions of Multiracial students. Professional School Counseling, 17, 119. doi: 10.5330/PSC.n.2013–17.1

Hirschfeld, L. A. (1995). Do children have a theory of race? Cognition, 54, 209252. doi: 10.1016/0010-0277(95)91425-r

Ho, A. K., Roberts, S. O., & Gelman, S. A. (2015). Essentialism and racial bias jointly contribute to the categorization of Multiracial individuals. Psychological Science, 26, 16391645. doi: 10.1177/0956797615596436

Ho, A. K., Sidanius, J., Cuddy, A. J., & Banaji, M. R. (2013). Status boundary enforcement and the categorization of Black–White biracials. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 940943. doi: 10.1016/j/jesp.2013.04.010

Ho, A. K., Sidanius, J., Levin, D., & Banaji, M. (2011). Evidence for hypodescent and racial hierarchy in the categorization and perception of biracial individuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 492506. doi: 10.1037/a0021562

Hugenberg, K., & Bodenhausen, G. V. (2004). Ambiguity in social categorization. The role of prejudice and facial affect in race categorization. Psychological Science, 15 342345. doi: 141.213.236.110

Kang, S. K., & Chasteen, A. L. (2009). Beyond the double-jeopardy hypothesis: Assessing emotion on the faces of multiply-categorizable targets of prejudice. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 12811285, doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2009.07.002

Jacobs, J. H. (1992). Identity development in biracial children. In M. P. P. Root (Ed.), Racially mixed people in America (pp. 190206). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Krosch, A. R., & Amodio, D. M. (2014). Economic scarcity alters the perception of race. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111, 90799084. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1404448111

Krosch, A. R., Berntsen, L., Amodio, D. M., Jost, J. T., & Van Bavel, J. J. (2013). On the ideology of hypodescent: Political conservatism predicts categorization of racially ambiguous faces as Black.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 11961203. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2013.05.009

LoBue, V., & Thrasher, C. (2014). The Child Affective Facial Expression (cafe) set. Databrary. Retrieved from http://databrary.org/volume/30.

Meissner, C. A., & Brigham, J. C. (2001). Thirty years of investigating the own-race bias in memory for faces: A meta-analytic review. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 7, 335. doi: 10.1037/1076–8971.7.1.1

Nidiffer, J., & Bouman, J. P. (2004). ‘The University of the Poor’: The University of Michigan’s transition from admitting impoverished students to studying poverty, 1870–1910. American Educational Research Journal, 41, 3567. doi: 10.3102/00028312041001035

Okonofua, J. A., & Eberhardt, J. L. (2015). Two strikes: Race and the disciplining of young students. Psychological Science, 26, 617624. doi: 10.1177/0956797615570365

Peery, D., & Bodenhausen, G. (2008). Black + White = Black: Hypodescent in reflexive categorization of racially ambiguous faces. Psychological Science, 19, 973977. doi: 10.1111/j.14667–9280.2008.02185.x

Pew Research Center. (2015). Chapter 1: Race and Multiracial Americans in the U.S. Census. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2015/06/11/chapter-1-race-and-Multiracial-americans-in-the-u-s-census/#.

Ranganath, K. A., Smith, C. T., & Nosek, B. A. (2008). Distinguishing automatic and controlled components of attitudes from direct and indirect measurement methods. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 386396. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2006.12.008

Rhodes, M., & Gelman, S. A. (2009). A developmental examination of the conceptual structure of animal, artifact, and human social categories across two cultural contexts. Cognitive Psychology, 59, 244274. doi: 10.1016/j.cogpsych.2009.05.001

Roberts, S. O., & Gelman, S. A. (2015). Do children see in Black and White? Children’s and adults’ categorizations of Multiracial individuals. Child Development, 86, 18301847. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12410

Roberts, S. O., & Gelman, S. A. (2017). Multiracial children’s and adults’ categorizations of Multiracial individuals. Journal of Cognition and Development. doi: 10.1080/15248372.2015.1086772

Rowley, S. J., & Camacho, T. C. (2015). Increasing diversity in cognitive developmental research: Issues and solutions. Journal of Cognition and Development, 16, 683692. doi: 10.1080/15248372.2014.976224

Skinner, A. L., & Nicolas, G. (2015). Looking Black or looking back? Using phenotype and ancestry to make racial categorizations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 57, 5563. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2014.11.011

Todd, A. R., Thiem, K. C., & R. Neel. (2016). Does seeing faces of young Black boys facilitate the identification of threatening stimuli? Psychological Science, 27, 384393. doi: 10.1177/0956797615624492

Tran, A. T., Miyake, E. R., Martinez-Morales, V., & Csizmadia, A. (2016). ‘What are you?’ Multiracial individuals’ responses to racial identification inquiries. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 22, 2637. doi: 10.1037/cdp0000031

Williams, M., & Eberhardt, J. (2008). Biological conceptions of race and the motivation to cross racial boundaries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 10331047. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.U.S.

u.s. Census (2011). Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-02.pdf.

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 38 38 28
Full Text Views 6 6 6
PDF Downloads 3 3 3
EPUB Downloads 1 1 1