Does this Smile Make me Look White? Exploring the Effects of Emotional Expressions on the Categorization of Multiracial Children

in Journal of Cognition and Culture
No Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Abstract

Previous research shows that Multiracial adults are categorized as more Black than White (i.e., Black-categorization bias), especially when they have angry facial expressions. The present research examined the extent to which these categorization patterns extended to Multiracial children, with both White and Black participants. Consistent with past research, both White and Black participants categorized Multiracial children as more Black than White. Counter to what was found with Multiracial adults in previous research, emotional expressions (e.g., happy vs. angry) did not moderate how Multiracial children were categorized. Additionally, for Black participants, anti-White bias was correlated with categorizing Multiracial children as more White than Black. The developmental and cultural implications of these data are discussed, as they provide new insight into the important role that age plays in Multiracial person perception.

Does this Smile Make me Look White? Exploring the Effects of Emotional Expressions on the Categorization of Multiracial Children

in Journal of Cognition and Culture

Sections

References

  • BarghJ. A.ChenM. & BurrowsL (1996). Automaticity of social behavior: Direct effects of trait construct and stereotype activation on action. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology71230244. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.71.2.230

  • BlascovichJ.WyerN. A.SwartL. A. & KiblerJ. L. (1997). Racism and racial categorization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology7213641372. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.72.6.1364

  • BoboL. (1998). Race, interests, and beliefs about affirmative action: Unanswered questions and new directions. American Behavioral Scientist419851003. doi: 10.1177/0002764298041007009

  • ChenJ. & HamiltonD. (2012). Natural ambiguities: Racial categorization of Multiracial individuals. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology48152164. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2011.10.005

  • ChenJ.MoonsW.GaitherS.HamiltonD. and ShermanJ. (2014). Motivation to control prejudice predicts categorization of Multiracials. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin40590603. doi: 10.1177/0146167213520457

  • DavisF. J. (1991). Who is black? One nation’s definition. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

  • DevineP. G. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology56518. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.56.1.5

  • DunhamY. (2011). An angry = outgroup effect. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology47668671. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2011.01.003

  • DunhamY. & OlsonK. R. (2016). Beyond discrete categories: Studying multiracial, intersex, and transgender children will strengthen basic developmental science. Journal of Cognition and Development17642644doi: 10.1080/15248372.2016.1195388

  • FedericoC. M. & SidaniusJ. (2002). Racism, ideology, and affirmative action revisited: The antecedents and consequences of ‘principled objections’ to affirmative action. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology82488502. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.82.4.488

  • FrancoM. G. & FrancoS. A. (2016). Impact of identify invalidation for Black Multiracial people: The importance of race of perpetrator. Journal of Black PsychologyAdvance online publication. doi: 10.1177/0095798415604796

  • FrancoM. G.KatzR. & O’BrienK. M. (2016). Forbidden identities: A qualitative examination of racial identity invalidation for Black/White biracial individuals. International Journal of Intercultural Relations5096109. doi: 10.1016/j/ijintrel/2015/12/004

  • GoffP.JacksonM.LeoneB.CulottaC. & DitomassoN. (2014). The essence of innocence: Consequences of dehumanizing Black children. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology106526545. doi: 10.1037/a0035663

  • HarrisH. L. (2013). A national survey of school counselors’ perceptions of Multiracial students. Professional School Counseling17119. doi: 10.5330/PSC.n.2013–17.1

  • HirschfeldL. A. (1995). Do children have a theory of race? Cognition54209252. doi: 10.1016/0010-0277(95)91425-r

  • HoA. K.RobertsS. O. & GelmanS. A. (2015). Essentialism and racial bias jointly contribute to the categorization of Multiracial individuals. Psychological Science2616391645. doi: 10.1177/0956797615596436

  • HoA. K.SidaniusJ.CuddyA. J. & BanajiM. R. (2013). Status boundary enforcement and the categorization of Black–White biracials. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology49940943. doi: 10.1016/j/jesp.2013.04.010

  • HoA. K.SidaniusJ.LevinD. & BanajiM. (2011). Evidence for hypodescent and racial hierarchy in the categorization and perception of biracial individuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology100492506. doi: 10.1037/a0021562

  • HugenbergK. & BodenhausenG. V. (2004). Ambiguity in social categorization. The role of prejudice and facial affect in race categorization. Psychological Science15 342345. doi: 141.213.236.110

  • KangS. K. & ChasteenA. L. (2009). Beyond the double-jeopardy hypothesis: Assessing emotion on the faces of multiply-categorizable targets of prejudice. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology4512811285doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2009.07.002

  • JacobsJ. H. (1992). Identity development in biracial children. In M. P. P. Root (Ed.) Racially mixed people in America (pp. 190206). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

  • KroschA. R. & AmodioD. M. (2014). Economic scarcity alters the perception of race. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences11190799084. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1404448111

  • KroschA. R.BerntsenL.AmodioD. M.JostJ. T. & Van BavelJ. J. (2013). On the ideology of hypodescent: Political conservatism predicts categorization of racially ambiguous faces as Black.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology4911961203. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2013.05.009

  • LoBueV. & ThrasherC. (2014). The Child Affective Facial Expression (cafe) set. Databrary. Retrieved from http://databrary.org/volume/30.

  • MeissnerC. A. & BrighamJ. C. (2001). Thirty years of investigating the own-race bias in memory for faces: A meta-analytic review. Psychology Public Policy and Law7335. doi: 10.1037/1076–8971.7.1.1

  • NidifferJ. & BoumanJ. P. (2004). ‘The University of the Poor’: The University of Michigan’s transition from admitting impoverished students to studying poverty, 1870–1910. American Educational Research Journal413567. doi: 10.3102/00028312041001035

  • OkonofuaJ. A. & EberhardtJ. L. (2015). Two strikes: Race and the disciplining of young students. Psychological Science26617624. doi: 10.1177/0956797615570365

  • PeeryD. & BodenhausenG. (2008). Black + White = Black: Hypodescent in reflexive categorization of racially ambiguous faces. Psychological Science19973977. doi: 10.1111/j.14667–9280.2008.02185.x

  • Pew Research Center. (2015). Chapter 1: Race and Multiracial Americans in the U.S. Census. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2015/06/11/chapter-1-race-and-Multiracial-americans-in-the-u-s-census/#.

  • RanganathK. A.SmithC. T. & NosekB. A. (2008). Distinguishing automatic and controlled components of attitudes from direct and indirect measurement methods. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology44386396. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2006.12.008

  • RhodesM. & GelmanS. A. (2009). A developmental examination of the conceptual structure of animal, artifact, and human social categories across two cultural contexts. Cognitive Psychology59244274. doi: 10.1016/j.cogpsych.2009.05.001

  • RobertsS. O. & GelmanS. A. (2015). Do children see in Black and White? Children’s and adults’ categorizations of Multiracial individuals. Child Development8618301847. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12410

  • RobertsS. O. & GelmanS. A. (2017). Multiracial children’s and adults’ categorizations of Multiracial individuals. Journal of Cognition and Development. doi: 10.1080/15248372.2015.1086772

  • RowleyS. J. & CamachoT. C. (2015). Increasing diversity in cognitive developmental research: Issues and solutions. Journal of Cognition and Development16683692. doi: 10.1080/15248372.2014.976224

  • SkinnerA. L. & NicolasG. (2015). Looking Black or looking back? Using phenotype and ancestry to make racial categorizations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology575563. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2014.11.011

  • ToddA. R.ThiemK. C. & R. Neel. (2016). Does seeing faces of young Black boys facilitate the identification of threatening stimuli? Psychological Science27384393. doi: 10.1177/0956797615624492

  • TranA. T.MiyakeE. R.Martinez-MoralesV. & CsizmadiaA. (2016). ‘What are you?’ Multiracial individuals’ responses to racial identification inquiries. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology222637. doi: 10.1037/cdp0000031

  • WilliamsM. & EberhardtJ. (2008). Biological conceptions of race and the motivation to cross racial boundaries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology9410331047. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.U.S.

  • u.s. Census (2011). Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-02.pdf.

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 164 164 86
Full Text Views 128 128 26
PDF Downloads 13 13 3
EPUB Downloads 3 3 0