Researching the Image of the Yellow Emperor in China’s Early Textual Sources and Archaeological Materials

in Journal of Chinese Humanities
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In China’s early textual sources and archaeological materials, the Yellow Emperor 黄帝 appears in the following three contexts: in genealogical records, among predynastic rulers, and in sacrificial rituals. The earliest appearance of the Yellow Emperor is probably in genealogical records; then, after being an ancestral ruler, he becomes the earliest emperor and a legendary ruler. This demonstrates his shift from an ancestral context to a monarchic context and illustrates the gradual yet colossal shift in ancient Chinese political thought from a system of enfeoffment built on blood relations to a system of prefectures and counties based on regional ties. The image of the Yellow Emperor in the context of sacrifice is closely linked to the yin-yang and five elements theories beginning in the later stage of the Warring States period; as society developed, this image also became associated with a certain Daoist path, thereby acquiring a religious value.

Researching the Image of the Yellow Emperor in China’s Early Textual Sources and Archaeological Materials

in Journal of Chinese Humanities

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References

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1

Li Ling 李零“Shuo ‘Huanglao’ 說 ‘黃老’” in Li Ling zixuanji 李零自選集 [Li Ling’s Self-Selected Works] (Guilin: Guangxi shifan daxue chubanshe1998) 278.

2

Li Ling“Chutu faxian yu gushu niandai de zairenshi 出土發現與古書年代的再認識,” in Li Ling zixuanji49-52.

3

Guo Moruo 郭沫若“Liangzhou jinwenci daxi kaoshi 兩周金文辭大系考釋,” in Guo Moruo quanji (kaogu bian) 郭沫若全集(考古編)[The Complete Works of Guo Moruo (Archaeology)] (Beijing: Kexue chubanshe 2002) 8:464. Not all the contents are from this source as other similar sources have also been consulted.

4

Li Ling“Kaogu faxian yu shenhua chuanshuo 考古發現與神話傳說,” in Li Ling zixuanji72.

5

Wang Bo 王博“Huangdi sijing he guanzi sipian‘黃帝四經’和 管子’四篇,” in Daojia wenhua yanjiu 道家文化研究 [Researching Daoist Culture] ed. Chen Guying 陳鼓應 (Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe1992) 211.

6

Chen Peifen 陳佩芬“Wu Wang Jianzuo 武王踐祚,” in Shanghai bowuguan cang zhanguo chu zhushu 上海博物館藏戰國楚竹書 [Chu-Script Bamboo Slip Manuscripts in the Shanghai Museum Collection] vol. 7 ed. Ma Chengyuan 馬承源 (Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe 2008). For annotation see p. 151.

9

Li“Kaogu faxian yu shenhua chuanshuo” 71.

11

Li“Shuo ‘huanglao’” 281.

12

Wang Mingke 王明珂“Lun Panfu: Jindai yan huang zisun guozu jiangou de gudai jichu 論攀附:近代炎黃子孫國族建構的古代基礎,” Zhongyang yanjiuyuan lishi yuyan yanjiusuo jikan 73 no. 3 (2002): 610.

17

Liu Qiyu 劉起釪“Woguo gushi chuanshuo shiqi zongkao 我國古史傳說時期綜考,” in Gushi xubian 古史續辨 (Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshe1991) 23-24.

20

Li Ling“Kaogu faxian yu shenhua chuanshuo 考古發現與神話傳說 [Archaeological Finds and Mythological Traditions],” in Li Ling zixuanji71.

22

Li Ling“Rongcheng shi shuoming 容成氏·說明,” in Shanghai bowuguan cang zhanguo chu zhushu 上海博物館藏戰國楚竹書 ed. Ma Chengyuan 馬承源 (Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe 2002) 2:249.

25

Cao Feng曹峰“‘Sande’ suojian ‘Huanghou’ wei ‘Huangdi’ Kao <三德>所見“皇后”為“黃帝”考 [Textual Research on the “Huanghou” in Sande Being Huangdi]” Qilu Journal 5 (2008).

26

Liu Qiyu 劉起釪“Jici zuhe fenyun cuozade san huang wu di 幾次組合紛紜錯雜的三皇五帝,” in Gushi xubian 古史续辨 (Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshe1991) 94.

28

Wang Yinglin 王應麟“Xiaoxue ganzhu 小學紺珠,” in Congshu jicheng chu bian 叢書集成初編 (Shanghai: Shangwu yinshuguan1935) 177-178.

39

Sima QianShiji1382-1383.

40

Li Ling李零“Zhongguo fangshu xukao ‘xinban qianyan’ 中國方術續考<新版前言>,” in Zhongguo fangshu xukao 中國方術續考 (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju2006) 9-10.

42

Li Ling“Qin-Han cizhi tongkao 秦漢祠畤通考,” in Zhongguo fangshu xukao 中國方術續考 (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju2006) 142-156.

45

Rao Zongyi 饒宗頤“Daojiao yu chusu guanxi xin zheng—chu wenhuade xin renshi 道教與楚俗關係新證——楚文化的新認識,” in Rao Zongyi shixue lunzhu xuan 饒宗頤史學論著選 (Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe 1993) 130-134.

48

Wu Rongzeng 吳榮曾“Zhenmuwen zhong suo jiandaode donghan daowu guanxi 鎮墓文中所見到的東漢道巫關係,” Wenwu 3 (1981).

52

Xin Lixiang 信立祥“Kongwang shan moya zaoxiang zhong daojiao renwu kao 孔望山摩崖造像中道教人物考,” Zhongguo lishi bowuguan guankan 2 (1997).

53

Charles Le Blanc“A Re-Examination of the Myth of Huang-ti,” Journal of Chinese Religions 13/14 (1985-86): 45-46.

54

Qi Sihe 齊思和“Lun huangdizhi zhiqi gushi 論黃帝之制器故事,” in Gushi bian 古史辨 [Debates on Ancient History] ed. Lü Simian 呂思勉 and Tong Shuye 童書業 (Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe 1982) 7: 385.

56

Li“Shuo ‘Huanglao’” 280.

58

Ye Gang 葉崗“Zhongguo xiaoshuo fashengqi xianxiangde lilun zonghe—‘hanshu yiwenzhi’ zhongde xiaoshuo biaozhun yu xiaoshuojia 中國小說發生期現象的理論總結——漢書·藝文志中的小說標準與小說家,” Wenyi yanjiu 10 (2005).

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