Virtuous Governance and the Chinese Way

in Journal of Chinese Humanities
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Abstract

Lucian W. Pye, the renowned American Sinologist, argues that power/authority in Chinese culture follows a paternalistic structure, that the distinction in Chinese society between public and private has historically been in a state of tension, and therefore that Chinese governance has always emphasized central power over local self-governance, suppressed cultural pluralism, and rebuffed multipolar structures of power. Even though the inherent tension identified by Pye certainly exists, the thesis that Chinese culture has a deeply ingrained authoritarian orientation is simply incorrect. In order to resolve the tension between the public and private realms, Chinese thinkers—from the various strands of legalist thought to the Confucian notion of “kingly governance”—have premised the division of power on the priority of preserving centralized power. In other words, diffusion of power has been premised on the idea of an already collectivized authority. Therefore, the power structure that defines Chinese culture has certainly not been the polycentric one that Pye implicitly values, but neither has it been the centralist, authoritarian structure that he abhors. Rather, it has been the Confucian model premised on the values of governance through ritual and moral virtue. Insights from cultural psychology help explain ethical governance—that is, rule by an ethical meritocracy—in Chinese society and culture.

Virtuous Governance and the Chinese Way

in Journal of Chinese Humanities

Sections

References

  • BolPeter K. “The Rise of Local History: History, Geography, and Culture in Southern Song and Yuan Wuzhou.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies61no.1 (2001): 37-76.

  • BondMichael H.; Kwok Leung; and Kwok Choi Wan. “How Does Cultural Collectivism Operate? The Impact of Task and Maintenance Contributions on Reward Distribution.” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology13no. 2 (1982): 186-200.

  • BrewerMarilynn B. and Ya-Ru Chen. “Where (Who) Are Collectivism? Toward Conceptual Clarification of Individualism and Collectivism.” Psychological Review114no. 1 (2007): 133-151.

  • CuaAntonio S. “Dimensions of Li (Propriety): Reflections on an Aspect of Hsün Tzu’s Ethics.” Philosophy East & West29no. 4 (1979): 373-394.

  • CuaAntonio S. “Li and Moral Justification: A Study in the Li Chi.” Philosophy East & West33no.1 (1983): 1-16.

  • De BaryWm. Theodore. Asian Values and Human Rights: A Confucian Communitarian Perspective. Cambridge: Harvard University Press1998.

  • Fang Zhaohui 方朝暉. Wenming de huimie yu xinsheng: ruxue yu zhongguon xiandaixing yanjiu 文明的毀滅與新生: 儒學與中國現代性研究 [The death and Rebirth of Civilization]. Beijing: Zhongguo renmin daxue chubanshe2011.

  • Fang Zhaohui. “‘Sangang’ zhende shi zaopo ma? Chongxin shenshi ‘sangang’ de lishi yu xianshi yiyi 三綱”真的是糟粕嗎?重新審視‘三綱’的歷史與現實意義 [Are ‘Sangang’ Really Feudal Leftovers?].” Tianjin shehui kexue 天津社會科學no. 2 (2011): 47-52.

  • Fang Zhaohui. “Cong ‘Maoshi’ fengjiao kan zhongguo yanjiu de fanshi weiji 從<毛詩>風教看中國研究的範式危機 [Recognizing a Paradigm Crisis by Analyzing Research on the Feng Poems of the Book of Odes].” Guoxue xinshiye 國學新視野no. 3 (2012): 55-70.

  • Fang Zhaohui. “Shi shui wujie le sangang-dafu Li Cunshan jiaoshou 是誰誤解了三 綱──答覆李存山教授 [Who Misunderstood the ‘Sangang’].” Zhanlue yu guanli 戰略與管理 nos. 5/6(2012): 78-101.

  • Fei Xiaotong 費孝通. Xiangtu Zhongguo shengyu zhidu 鄉土中國生育制度. Beijing: Beijing daxue chubanshe1998.

  • HoDavid Y.F. “Interpersonal Relationships and Relationship Dominance: An Analysis Based on Methodological Relationalism.” Asian Journal of Social Psychology1no. 1(1998): 1-16.

  • HofstedeGeert H. Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values. Abr. ed. Newbury Park: Sage1980/1984.

  • HsuFrancis L.K. Americans and Chinese: Reflections on Two Cultures and Their People. Garden City, NY: Doubleday Natural History Press1970.

  • Huang Guangguo 黃光國 [Hwang Kwang-kuo]. “Chinese Relationalism: Theoretical Construction and Methodological Considerations.” Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour30no. 2 (2000): 155-178.

  • Huang Guangguo. “Cong shehui xinli de jiaodu kan rujia wenhua chuantong de neizai jiegou 從社會心理的角度看儒家文化傳統的內在結構 [Looking at the Internal Structure of Traditional Confucian Culture from the Perspective of Social Psychology].” In Chuantong zhonghua wenhua yu xiandai jiazhi de jidang 傳統中華文化與現代價值的激蕩 [The Conflict Between Traditional Chinese Culture and Modern Values] ed. Huang Junjie 黃俊傑129-161. Beijing: Shehui kexue chubanshe2002.

  • Huang Guangguo. “The Deep Structure of Confucianism: A Social Psychological Approach.” Asian Philosophy11no. 3 (2001): 179-204.

  • Huang Guangguo. “Face and Favor: The Chinese Power Game.” American Journal of Sociology92no. 4 (1987): 944-974.

  • Huang Guangguo. “Renqing yu mianzi: zhongguoren de quanli youxi 人情與面子:中國人的權力遊戲 [Favors and Face: The Chinese Game of Thrones]” In Zhongguoren de xinli 中國人的心理 [The Psychology of Chinese People] ed. Yang Guoshu 楊國樞226-248. Nanjing: Jiangsu jiaoyu chubanshe2006.

  • KipnisAndrew B. Producing Guanxi Sentiment Self and Subculture in a North China Village. Durham: Duke University Press1997.

  • LeungKwok and Michael H. Bond. “The Impact of Cultural Collectivism on Reward Allocation.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology47no. 4 (1984): 793-804.

  • Li Xiangfeng 黎翔鳳 annot. Liang Yunhua 粱運華 coll. Guanzi jiaozhu 管子校注 [Annotation of Guanzi]. In Xinbian zhuzi jicheng 新編諸子集成 [New Collected Interpretations of Zhuzi]. Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company2004.

  • Liang Shuming 梁漱溟. Zhongguo wenhua yaoyi 中國文化要義 [The Essentials of Chinese Culture]. In Liang Shuming quanji 梁漱溟全集 [The Complete Work of Liang Shuming]conp. Zhongguo wenhua shuyuan xueshu weiyuanhui 中國文化書院學術委員會3: 1-316. Jinan: Shandong renmin chubanshe1990.

  • NisbettRichard E. The Geography of Thought: How Asians and Westerners Think Differently … and Why. New York: Free Press2003.

  • PyeLucian W. and Mary W. Pye. Asian Power and Politics: The Cultural Dimensions of Authority. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press1985.

  • Qian Mu 錢穆. Zhongguo lidai zhengzhi deshi 中國歷代政治得失 [A Scorecard on the History of Chinese Governance]. Beijing: Shenghuo, dushu, xinzhi sanlian shudian2005.

  • RankinMary Backus. “Some Observations on a Chinese Public Sphere.” Modern China19no.2 (1993): 158-182.

  • RoweWilliam T. “The Problem of ‘Civil Society’ in Late Imperial China.” Modern China19no.2 (1993): 139-157.

  • ShilsEdward. “Reflections on Civil Society and Civility in the Chinese Intellectual Tradition.” In Confucian Traditions in East Asian Modernity: Moral Education and Economic Culture in Japan and the Four Mini-Dragons ed. Tu Wei-ming38-71. Cambridge: Harvard University Press1996.

  • Su Yu 蘇輿. Chunqiufanlu yizheng 春秋繁露義證 [Commentary on Chunqiu Fanlu]. Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company1992.

  • Sun Longji 孫隆基. Zhongguo wenhua de shenceng jiegou 中國文化的深層結構 [The Deeper Structure of Chinese Culture]. Guilin: Guangxi shifan daxue chubanshe2004.

  • TriandisHarry C. Individualism & Collectivism. Boulder: Westview Press1995.

  • WakemanFrederic Jr.“The Civil Society and Public Sphere Debate: Western Reflections on Chinese Political Culture.” Modern China19no.2 (1993): 108-138.

  • Yang Bojun 楊伯峻. Mengzi yizhu 孟子譯注 [Translation and Commentary on Mencius]. Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company2003.

  • Yang Bojun. Lunyu yizhu 論語譯注 [Translation and Commentary on Analects]. Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company2002.

  • Yang Jingsong. “Binkou Huijun jiqi ‘renji guanxi zhuyi’ lilun 濱口惠俊及其 ‘人際關係主義’理論 [Hamaguchi Eshun and His Theory on the Ideology of Personal Relationships].” Riben xuekan 日本學刊no. 3 (2005): 152-159.

  • YangMayfair Mei-hui. Gifts Favors and Banquets: The Art of Social Relationships in China. Ithaca: Cornell University Press1994.

  • Yu Yingshi 余英時. Rujia lunli yu shangren jingshen 儒家倫理與商人精神 [Confucian Ethics and the Business Spirit]. In Yu Yingshi wenji 余英時文集 [Yu Yingshi Collected Works]vol. 3 ed. Shen Zhijia 沈志佳. Guilin: Guangxi shifan daxue chubanshe2004.

Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 89 89 9
Full Text Views 76 76 1
PDF Downloads 9 9 0
EPUB Downloads 3 3 0