Faithful History or Unreliable History: Three Debates on the Historicity of the Xia Dynasty

In: Journal of Chinese Humanities

Abstract

Three debates on the historicity of the Xia dynasty [ca. 2100-1600 BCE] have occurred, spanning the 1920s and 1930s, the late 1900s and early 2000s, and recent years. In the first debate, Gu Jiegang 顧頡剛 [1893-1980], Wang Guowei 王國維 [1877-1927], and Xu Xusheng 徐旭生 [1888-1976] pioneered three avenues for exploring the history of the Xia period. The second debate unfolded in the context of the Doubting Antiquity School [Yigupai 疑古派] and the Believing Antiquity School [Zouchu yigu 走出疑古] and can be considered a continuation of the first debate. The third debate, which is steadily increasing in influence, features the introduction of new materials, methods, and perspectives and is informed by research into the origins of Chinese civilization, a field that is now in a phase of integration.

  • AllanS.The Myth of the Xia Dynasty.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 116no. 2 (1984): 242-256.

  • AllanS. The Shape of the Turtle: Myth Art and Cosmos in Early China. Albany: State University of New York Press1991.

  • AllanS.The Jishi Outburst Flood of 1920 BCE and the Great Flood Legend in Ancient China: Preliminary Reflections.” Journal of Chinese Humanities 3no. 1 (2017): 23-34.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AllanS. [艾蘭]. Dui xiyuanqian 1920 nian jishixia hongshui yu gudai zhongguo hongshui chuanshuo de chubu sikao 對西元前 1920 年積石峽洪水與古代中國洪水傳說的初步思考 [The Jishi Outburst Flood of 1920 BCE and the Great Flood Legend in Ancient China: Preliminary Reflections]. Wen shi zheno. 1 (2018): 23-27+165.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BirrellA. Chinese Mythology: An Introduction. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press1993.

  • Cai Zhemao 蔡哲茂. “Xia wangchao cunzai xinzheng, shuo yin buci de xiyi 夏王朝存在新證: 說殷卜辭的西邑 [New Evidence on the Existence of the Xia Dynasty: Mentions of Xiyi in the Shang-Dynasty Oracle Bone Inscriptions].” Zhongguo wenhua 中國文化 44 (October 2016): 47-51.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cai Zhemao 蔡哲茂. “Yiyin chuanshuo de yanjiu 伊尹傳說的研究 [The Study of Yi Yin’s Legend].” In Zhongguo shenhua yu chuanshuo xueshu yantaohui lunwenji 中國神話與傳說學術研討會論文集 [Proceedings of Chinese Myths and Legends Symposium] ed. Li Yiyuan 李亦園 and Wang Qiugui 王秋桂243-276. Taibei: Hanxue yanjiu zhongxin1996.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen Chun 陳淳. Wenming yu zaoqi guojia tanyuan: Zhongwai lilun fangfa yu yanjiu zhi bijiao 文明與早期國家探源:中外理論方法與研究之比較 [Exploring the Origins of Civilization and Early States: A Comparison between Chinese and Foreign Theories Methods and Research]. Shanghai: Shanghai shudian chubanshe2007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen Chun 陳淳 and Gong Xin 龔辛. “Erlitou, Xia yu Zhongguo zaoqi guojia yanjiu 二里頭,夏與中國早期國家研究 [Research into Erlitou, Xia, and Early Chinese States].” Fudan xuebao (shehui kexue ban) 復旦學報 (社會科學版) 4 (2004): 82-91.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen Mengjia 陳夢家. “Shangdai de shenhua yu wushu 商代的神話與巫術 [The Mythology and Sorcery of the Shang Dynasty].” Yanjing xuebao 燕京學報no. 20 (December 1936): 485-643.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen Minzhen 陳民鎮. “Qinghuajian yiyin zhupian yu shangtang judi ji fajie luxian kao 清華簡伊尹諸篇與商湯居地及伐桀路線考 [The Study of Yi Yin Articles in Qinghua Bamboo Slips and Shangtang Residence and Attacting Jie’s Route].” Guangxi shifan daxue xuebao 廣西師範大學學報no. 2 (2018): 1-11.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen Xingcan 陳星燦 and Liu Li 劉莉. “Xia–Shang–Zhou duandai gongcheng yinqi de wangshang taolun jishi 夏商周斷代工程引起的網上討論紀實 [Records of Online Discussion on the Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project].” Gudai wenming yanjiu tongxun 古代文明研究通訊 9 (June 2001).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dong Guanghui 董廣輝et al.Lajia yizhi shiqian zaihai yu huanghe dahongshui wuguan 喇家遺址史前災害與黃河大洪水無關 [Disasters at the Lajia Site Have Nothing to Do with the Yellow River Flood].” Zhongguo kexue: diqiu kexue 中國科學:地球科學 [Science in China (Earth Sciences)]no. 4 (2018): 467-475.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Du Yong 杜勇. “Guanyu lishi shang shifou cunzai Xiachao de wenti 關於歷史上是否存在夏朝的問題 [On the Question of the Existence of the Xia Dynasty].” Tianjin shifan daxue xuebao (shehui kexue ban) 天津師範大學學報(社會科學版)no. 4 (2006): 90-95.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EckholmE.In China, Ancient History Kindles Modern Doubts.” New York TimesNovember 102000 A3.

  • Fang Yousheng 方酉生. “Luelun Erlitou yizhi de wenhua xingzhi: Jian yu Zhongguo wenming yu guojia tanyuan de sikao deng wen shangque 略論二里頭遺址的文化性質—兼與〈中國文明與國家探源的思考〉等文商榷 [On the Cultural Nature of the Erlitou Site and ‘Tracing the Origins of Chinese Civilization and State’].” Dongnan wenhua 東南文化no. 3 (2003): 6-13.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gu Jiegang 顧頡剛. “Taolun gushi da Liu Hu er xiansheng 討論古史答劉胡二先生 [Discussing Ancient History with Mr. Liu and Mr. Hu].” Dushu zazhi 讀書雜誌no. 12 (1922): 1-4.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gu Jiegang 顧頡剛. “Yu Qian Xuantong xiansheng lun gushi shu 與錢玄同先生論古史書 [Talking about Ancient History with Mr. Qian Xuantong].” Dushu zazhi 讀書雜誌no. 9 (1922): 3-4.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gu Jiegang 顧頡剛. Gushi bian 古史辨 [Ancient History Analysis]. Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe1982.

  • Gu Jiegang 顧頡剛. Gu Jiegang quanji 1 顧頡剛全集 1 [Complete Works of Gu Jiegang vol. 1]. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju2010.

  • Gu Jiegang 顧頡剛. “Chunqiu Zhanguo shi jiangyi di yi bian (minzu yu jiangyu) 春秋戰國史講義第一編(民族與疆域) [Lecture Notes on the Histories of the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods, part 1: Peoples and Territories].” In Gu Jiegang gushi lunwenji 4 顧頡剛古史論文集 4 [A Collection of Gu Jiegang’s Writings on Ancient History vol. 4]. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guo Jingyun 郭靜雲. “Jishixia hongshui yu da Yu zhishui wuguan 積石峽洪水與大禹治水無關 [No Relationship between the Jishixia Flood and the Introduction of Flood Control by Yu the Great].” Zhongguo shehui kexue bao 中國社會科學報November 820166.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guo Moruo 郭沫若. “Zhongguo gudai shehui yanjiu Xia Yu de wenti 中國古代社會研究·夏禹的問題 [Research into Ancient Chinese Society: The Problem of Yu of Xia].” In Guo Moruo quanji: lishi bian 1 郭沫若全集·歷史編 1 [Complete Works of Guo Moruo: History Volume vol. 1]302-308. Beijing: Renmin chubanshe1982.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guo Yongbing 郭永秉. “Lun qinghuajian houfu yingwei xiashu zhiyipian 7 論清華簡〈厚父〉應為〈夏書〉之一篇 7 [‘Houfu’ in the Qinghua Bamboo Slips Should Be Part of the Xia shu, vol. 7].” In Chutu wenxian 出土文獻 [Excavated Texts] ed. Qinghua daxue chugtu wenxian yanjiu yu baohu zhongxin 清華大學出土文獻研究與保護中心118-132. Shanghai: Zhongxi shuju2015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guo Yongbing 郭永秉. “Zhe shi yi ge genben de taidu wenti: Xin chutu xianqin wenxian yu gushi chuanshuo daodu 這是一個根本的態度問題:〈新出土先秦文獻與古史傳說〉導讀 [All about Attitude: A Guide to ‘Newly Excavated Pre-Qin Texts and the Legends of Ancient History’].” In Guwenzi yu guwenxian lunji xubian 古文字與古文獻論集續編 [A Continuation of the Collection of Works on Ancient Writing and Ancient Documents]. Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe2015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guo Yongbing 郭永秉. Di xi xin yan: Chu di chutu Zhanguo wenxian zhong de chuan‑ shuo shidai gu diwang xitong yanjiu 帝系新研: 楚地出土戰國文獻中的傳說時代古帝王系統研究 [New Research on the Lineage of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors: Using Texts of the Warring States Period Excavated from Chu Territory to Examine the Ancient Rulers of the Legendary Period of Ancient Chinese History]. Beijing: Peking University Press2008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hu Houxuan 胡厚宣. “Yin buci Zhong de shangdi he wangdi shang 殷卜辭中的上帝和王帝(上)[Shangdi and Wangdi in the Shang-Dynasty Oracle Bone Inscriptions, part 1].” Lishi yanjiu 歷史研究no. 9 (1959): 23-51.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hu Zhenyu 胡振宇. “Shi nian lai Xia-Shang shi yanjiu de huigu yu zhanwang: Zhongguo Xia-Shang wenhua guoji xueshu yantaohui ji 十年來夏商史研究的回顧與展望—中國夏商文化國際學術研討會記 [Looking Back on Ten Years of Research into the Xia and Shang Periods: Notes on the International Conference on Xia and Shang Culture Held in China].” Shixue yuekan 史學月刊no. 2 (1992): 107-110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huang Yongnian 黃永年. “Ping ‘Zouchu yigu shidai’ 評〈走出疑古時代〉 [A Review of Departing from the Times of Doubting Antiquity].” In Jinian Gu Jiegang xiansheng danchen yi bai yi shi zhou nian lunwenji 紀念顧頡剛先生誕辰一百一十週年論文集 [Proceedings of the Celebration of Mr. Gu Jiegang’s 110th Birthday] ed. Institute of History at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences 中國社會科學院 and the Department of History at Sun Yat-sen University 中山大學歷史系123-130. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju2004.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jiang Linchang 江林昌. Zhongguo shanggu wenming kaolun 中國上古文明考論 [Examining the Ancient Civilization of China]. Shanghai: Shanghai jiaoyu chubanshe2005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KarlgrenB.Legends and Cults in Ancient China.” Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities 18 (1946): 199-365.

  • KeightleyD. N.The Bamboo Annals and Shang-Chou Chronology.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 38no. 2 (1978): 423-438.

  • Li Min 李旻. “Setting on the Ruins of Xia: Archaeology of Social Memory in Early China.” In Social Theory in Archaeology and Ancient History: the Present and Future Counternarratives ed. G. Emberling291-327. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li Min 李旻. “Chongfan xiaxu shehui jiyi yu jingdian de fasheng 重返夏墟:社會記憶與經典的發生 [Returning to Xia Xu: Social Memory and Occurrence of the Classic].” Kaogu xuebao 考古學報no. 3 (2017): 287-316.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li Min 李旻. Social Memory and State Formation in Early China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press2018.

  • Li Rui 李銳. “Erchong zhengjufa de jieding ji guize tanxi ‘二重證據法’的界定及規則探析 [An Analysis of the Definitions and Parameters of the Dual-Evidence Approach].” Lishi yanjiu 歷史研究no. 4 (2012): 116-133+191-192.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li Xueqin 李學勤. “Zouchu yigu shidai 走出疑古時代 [Departing from the Age of Doubting Antiquity].” Zhongguo wenhua 中國文化no. 7 (1992): 1-7.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li Xueqin 李學勤. “Lun Suigongxu ji qi zhongyao yiyi 論公盨及其重要意義 [On the Suigongxu and Its Significance].” Zhongguo lishi wenwu 中國歷史文物no. 6 (2002): 4-12.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lin Yin 林澐. “Zhen gai zouchu yigu shidai ma: dui dangqian Zhongguo gudianxue quxiang de kanfa 真該走出疑古時代嗎?—對當前中國古典學取向的看法 [Should We Really Depart from the Age of Doubting Antiquity: My Views on the Direction in Which Chinese Classical Studies Is Currently Headed].” Shixue jikan 史學集刊no. 3 (2007): 3-8 25.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu Qiyu 劉起釪. “Guanyu zouchu yigu shidai wenti 關於‘走出疑古時代’問題 [On Departing from the Age of Doubting Antiquity].” Chuantong wenhua yu xiandaihua 傳統文化與現代化no. 4 (1995): 22-28.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu Xing 劉星. “Quexi de duihua: Xia-Shang-Zhou duandai gongcheng yinqi de haiwai xueshu taolun jishi 缺席的對話: 夏商周斷代工程引起的海外學術討論紀實 [An Absent Dialogue: Records of Overseas Academic Discussion on the Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project].” Zhongguo wenwubao 中國文物報June 620015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LoeweM. and E. L. Shaughnessy ed. The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 B.C. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press1999.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ning Zhenjiang 寧鎮疆. “Qinghuajian houfu tianjiang xiamin ju de guannian yuanliu yu bingongxu mingwen zaishi 清華簡〈厚父〉‘天降下民’句的觀念源流與豳公盨銘文再釋—兼說先秦‘民本’思想的起源問題 [Origin of the Sentence ‘Tianjiang Xiamin’ in the Houfu Article in the Qinghua Bamboo Slips’ and the Reinterpretation of Inscriptions on Suigongxu: Also on the Origin of ‘People-Based’ Thought in the Pre-Qin Period].” In Chutu wenxian 出土文獻 [Excavated Texts] ed. Qinghua daxue chugtu wenxian yanjiu yu baohu zhongxin 清華大學出土文獻研究與保護中心7: 103-117. Shanghai: Zhongxi shuju2015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NivisonD. S. The Riddle of the Bamboo Annals. Taipei: Airiti Press2009.

  • NivisonD. S. and K. D. Pang. “Astronomical Evidence for the Bamboo Annals’ Chronicle of Early Xia.” Early China 15 (1990): 87-9597-196.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Qiu Xigui 裘錫圭. “Xin chutu xianqin wenxian yu gushi chuanshuo 新出土先秦文獻與古史傳說 [Newly Excavated Pre-Qin Texts and the Legends of Ancient History].” In Qiu Xigui xueshu wenji 5 裘錫圭學術文集 5 [Academic Writings of Qiu Xigui vol. 5]254-270. Shanghai: Fudan daxue chubanshe2012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ShaughnessyE. L.Wo yu Ni Dewei jiaoshou guanyu zaoqi Zhongguo biannian de bianlun: Ni Dewei wenji xu 我與倪德衛教授關於早期中國編年的辯論—〈倪德衛文集〉序 [My Debate with Prof. Nivison on the Chronology of Early China: Foreword to the Nivison Annals]” translated by Cheng Yuhei 程羽黑. Zhonghua dushubao 中華讀書報September 720169.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shen Changyun 沈長雲. “Zai lun Yu zhi hongshui jian ji Xia shi zhu wenti 再論禹治洪水兼及夏史諸問題 [Another Discussion of Yu’s Taming of the Floods and Some Issues Pertaining to the History of the Xia].” Zhongguo shehui kexue bao 中國社會科學報November 820166.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shen Changyun 沈長雲. “Guanyu Xiadai guojia chansheng de ruogan lilun yu shizheng wenti 關於夏代國家產生的若干理論與實證問題 [Some Theoretical and Evidential Issues Regarding State Formation in the Xia Period].” Zhongyuan wenhua yanjiu 中原文化研究no. 1 (2015): 5-13.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shen Changyun 沈長雲. “Lun Yu zhi hongshui zhenxiang jian lun Xia shi yanjiu zhu wenti 論禹治洪水真象兼論夏史研究諸問題 [On the Veracity of Yu’s Taming of the Floods and Some Issues Pertaining to Research into the History of the Xia].” Xueshu yuekan 學術月刊no. 6 (1994): 71-77.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shen Changyun 沈長雲. “Suigongxu ming yu Yu zhi hongshui wenti zai taolun 公盨銘與禹治洪水問題再討論 [On the Suigongxu Inscription and Yu’s Taming of the Floods].” Guoxue xuekan 國學學刊no. 1 (2014): 49-61143.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shen Changyun 沈長雲. “Xiadai shi duzhuan de ma: yu Chen Chun xiansheng shangque 夏代是杜撰的嗎—與陳淳先生商榷 [Is the Xia Period a Fabrication? A Discussion with Mr Chen Chun].” Hebei shifan daxue xuebao (zhexue shehui kexue ban) 河北師範大學學報(哲學社會科學版)no. 3 (2005): 89-96.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shen Changyun 沈長雲 and Zhang Weilian 張渭蓮. Zhongguo gudai guojia qiyuan yu xingcheng yanjiu 中國古代國家起源與形成研究 [Research on the Origins and Formation of the Ancient Chinese State]. Beijing: Renmin chubanshe2009.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shen Jianhua 沈建華. “Qinghua chujian yinzhi shiwen shijie 清華楚簡〈尹至〉釋文試解 [Explanation of the Yinzhi Article’s Translation in the Qinghua Bamboo Slips].” Zhongguoshi yanjiu 中國史研究no. 1 (2011): 67-72.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sun Qingwei 孫慶偉. Ding zhai yu ji: Xiadai xinshi de kaoguxue chongjian 鼏宅禹跡:夏代信史的考古學重建 [The Trace of the Yu in the Ding House: Archaeological Reconstruction of the True History of the Xia Dynasty]. Beijing: Sanlian shudian2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tan Jihe 譚繼和. “Xia Yu wenhua de xin tansuo: jinnian lai Xia Yu wenhua yanjiu shuping 夏禹文化的新探索—近年來夏禹文化研究述評 [New Explorations of Xia Yu Culture: Reviews on the Latest Research on Xia Yu Culture].” Zhonghua wenhua luntan 中華文化論壇no. 1 (2000): 57-61.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TanLiangchengChuan-Chou ShenYanjun Caiet al.Great Flood in the Middle-Lower Yellow River Reaches at 4000 a BP Inferred from Accurately-Dated Stalagmite Records.” Science Bulletin 63no. 4 (2018): 206-208.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ThorpR. L. China in the Early Bronze Age: Shang Civilization. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press2006.

  • Wang Guowei 王國維. Gushi xinzheng: Wang Guowei zuihou de jiangyi 古史新證—王國維最後的講義 [New Criticisms of Ancient History: Notes on Wang Guowei’s Last Lecture]. Beijing: Qinghua daxue chubanshe1997.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang Yuxin 王宇信. “Meiguo Xia wenhua guoji yantaohui ceji 美國‘夏文化國際研討會’側記 [Notes on the International Symposium on Xia Culture Held in the United States].” Zhongguoshi yanjiu dongtai 中國史研究動態no. 8 (1990): 22-29.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu QinglongZhao ZhijunLiu Liet al.Outburst Flood at 1920 BCE Supports Historicity of China’s Great Flood and the Xia Dynasty.” Science 353no. 6299 (2016): 579-582.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xie Weiyang 謝維揚. “Gushu chengshu he liuchuan qingkuang yanjiu de jinzhan yu gushi shiliaoxue gainian: wei jinian gushi bian di yi ce chuban 80 zhou nian er zuo 古書成書和流傳情況研究的進展與古史史料學概念—為紀念〈古史辨〉第一冊出版 80 週年而作 [Progress Made in Research into the Formation and Circulation of Ancient Texts and the Concept of Ancient Chinese Documentology: In Commemoration of the 80th Anniversary of the First Volume of ‘Gushi Bian’].” Wen shi zhe 文史哲no. 2 (2007): 47-54.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xie Weiyang 謝維揚. “Shui shi Lushan zhenmianmu: Jianqiao Zhongguo shanggushi duhou 誰識廬山真面目:〈劍橋中國上古史〉讀後 [Who Can Recognize the True Face of Mount Lu? Impressions on The Cambridge History of Ancient China].” Wen hui bao 文匯報April 21 2001.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xu Hong 許宏. “Guanyu erlitou wei zaoshang duyi de jiashuo 關於二里頭為早商都邑的假說 [Hypothesis about Whether Erlitou Is the Capital of the Early Shang Dynasty].” Nanfang wenwu 南方文物no. 3 (2015): 1-7+22.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xu Xusheng 徐旭生. Zhongguo gushi de chuanshuo shidai (xiudingben) 中國古史的傳說時代(修訂本) [The Legendary Period in Ancient Chinese History]. Beijing: Wenwu chubanshe1985.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang Kuan 楊寬. “Shuo Xia 說夏 [On the Xia].” In Zhongguo shanggushi daolun 中國上古史導論 [Introduction to Chinese Ancient History]185-205. Shanghai: Shanghai renmin chubanshe2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang Guoshuo 張國碩. “Lun Xia wangchao cunzai de yiju 論夏王朝存在的依據 [Evidence for the Existence of the Xia Dynasty].” Zhongguo lishi wenwu 中國歷史文物no. 4 (2010): 58-66.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang Guoshuo 張國碩. “Shixi Xia wangchao fouding shuo xingcheng de yuanyin 試析‘夏王朝否定說’形成的原因 [A Tentative Analysis on the Contributing Factors behind Xia-Dynasty Denial].” Huaxia kaogu 華夏考古no. 4 (2010): 90-95.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang Guoshuo 張國碩. “Zhoudai duzhuan Xia wangchao shuo kaobian 周代杜撰 ‘夏王朝說’ 考辨 [Testing the Theory That the Xia Dynasty Was Fabricated in the Zhou Period].” Zhongyuan wenwuno. 3 (2010): 46-50.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang Jingwei 張經緯. “Da Yu he qianli zhi wai de hongshui 大禹和千里之外的洪水 [Yu the Great and the Flood Thousands of Miles Away].” Wenhui bao 文匯報Aug 1220162.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhao Ping’an 趙平安. “Houfu de xingzhi jiqi yunhan de xiadai lishi wenhua 〈厚父〉的性質及其蘊含的夏代歷史文化 [The Nature of the Houfu Article and Its Historical and Cultural Characteristics of the Xia Dynasty].” Wenwu 文物no. 12 (2014): 81-8488.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 48 48 9
Full Text Views 4 4 1
PDF Downloads 2 2 0