Doing Minority Justice Through Procedural Fairness: Face Veil Bans in Europe

in Journal of Muslims in Europe
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Abstract

The French and Belgian bans on face veils in public places have been subjected to strong substantive human rights critiques. This article takes a complementary approach, examining the bans from the perspective of procedural fairness. Indeed, the French and Belgian bans are extreme examples of legislative processes taking place above the heads of the people concerned, neglecting the ban’s possible human rights impact. After exploring what the social psychology notion of procedural fairness entails for the judiciary and the legislator, especially in a multicultural context, this article details procedural fairness shortcomings with respect to the face veil ban in France and Belgium. Subsequently, the article sets out how the European Court of Human Rights might compensate for these shortcomings.

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References

3

Tyler, Tom R., “Procedural Justice and the Courts”, Court Review, 44(1/2) (2008), p. 26; Tyler, Tom R., “What is procedural justice?: Criteria used by citizens to assess the fairness of legal procedures”, Law and Society Review, 22 (1988), p. 121; Gangl, Amy, “Procedural Justice Theory and Evaluations of the Lawmaking Process”, Political Behavior, 25, 2 (2003), p. 120 (with reference to Hibbing, John R., and Theiss-Morse, Elizabeth, “Process Preferences and American Politics: What the People Want Government to Be”, The American Political Science Review 95(1) (2001), pp. 145-153.

4

Tyler, Tom R., “Governing amid diversity: Can fair decision-making procedures bridge competing public interests and values?”, Law and Society Review, 28, (1994), pp. 820-821.

5

Brems, Eva and Lavrysen, Laurens, “Procedural Justice in Human Rights Adjudication: The European Court of Human Rights”, Human Rights Quarterly, 35 (2013), p. 182.

9

Brems and Lavrysen, “Procedural Justice in Human Rights Adjudication: The European Court of Human Rights”, p. 185.

10

Tyler, Tom, Huo, Yuen, Trust in the Law (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2002), p. 167.

11

Tyler, Why People Obey The Law, pp. 175-176.

12

Tyler, Huo, Trust in the Law, p. 152; Burke, Kevin and Leben, Steve, “Procedural Fairness: A Key Ingredient in Public Satisfaction”, White paper for the American Judges Association (2007), p. 18; Tyler, Tom R., “Public Trust and Confidence in Legal Authorities: What Do Majority and Minority Group Members Want from the Law and Legal Institutions?”, Behavioral Sciences and the Law (2001), p. 217 (with references).

13

Tyler, Why People Obey The Law, p. 270, Tyler and Huo, Trust in the Law, pp. 142-146; Tyler, “Public Trust and Confidence in Legal Authorities: What Do Majority and Minority Group Members Want from the Law and Legal Institutions?”, p. 217; Levi, Margaret, Audrey Sacks, and Tom Tyler, “Conceptualizing Legitimacy, Measuring Legitimating Beliefs”, American Behavioral Scientist 53(3) (2009), p. 369.

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Tyler, Why People Obey The Law, p. 176.

16

See for example Tyler, “Procedural Justice and the Courts”, p. 30.

18

Tyler, Why People Obey The Law, pp. 149 and 276.

19

Brems and Lavrysen, “Procedural Justice in Human Rights Adjudication: The European Court of Human Rights”, p. 186.

20

Gangl, “Procedural Justice Theory and Evaluations of the Lawmaking Process”, p. 136.

21

Levi, Sacks and Tyler, “Conceptualizing Legitimacy, Measuring Legitimating Beliefs”, p. 360.

23

Tyler, “Procedural Justice and the Courts”, p. 31.

24

Tyler, “What is procedural justice?: Criteria used by citizens to assess the fairness of legal procedures”, p. 129 en Tyler, Why People Obey The Law, p. 164.

25

Tyler, “Procedural Justice and the Courts”, p. 30.

27

Tyler, “Procedural Justice and the Courts”, p. 30 and Burke and Leben, “Procedural Fairness: A Key Ingredient in Public Satisfaction”, p. 6.

28

Tyler, “Procedural Justice and the Courts”, p. 30 and Ouald Chaib, “Suku Phull v. France Rewritten from a Procedural Justice Perspective, p. 223.

29

Gangl, “Procedural Justice Theory and Evaluations of the Lawmaking Process”, p. 121.

30

Tyler, Tom R., “Governing amid diversity: Can fair decision-making procedures bridge competing public interests and values?”, p. 824.

31

Burke and Leben, “Procedural Fairness: A Key Ingredient in Public Satisfaction”, p. 7; Tyler, Why People Obey The Law, p. 152; see also Nussbaum, The New Religious Intolerance, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012), p. 65.

33

Gabizon, Cécilia, “Sarkozy: ‘la burqa n’est pas la bienvenue’ ”, Le Figaro, 26 June 2009, http://www.lefigaro.fr/politique/2009/06/23/01002-20090623ARTFIG00055-sarkozy-la-burqa-n-est-pas-la-bienvenue-.php (Last consulted on 31/10/2012, our translation).

42

Tyler, Why People Obey the Law, p.119, referring to the criteria developed by G.S. Leventhal, “What should be done with equity theory?” in Social exchange: Advances in theory and research, Gergen, Greenberg and Weiss (eds.) (New York: Plenum), 1980, pp. 27-55.

43

Leane, Geoffrey W.G., “Rights of ethnic Minorities in Liberal Democracies: Has France Gone too far in Banning Muslim Women from wearing the Burka?”, HRQ 33 (2011), p. 1053; Hunter-Henin, Myriam, “Why the French Don’t Like the Burqa: Laïcité, national Identity and Religious Freedom”, International and Comparative Law Quarterly 61(3) (2012), p. 613; Nanwani, Shaira, “The Burqa Ban: An Unreasonable Limitation on Religious Freedom or a Justifiable Restriction?”, Emory International Law Review 25 (2011), p. 1464. Cf. on the Netherlands: van Sasse van Ysselt, Paul, “Over het verbod op het dragen van een gezichtssluier en van andere gelaatsbedekkende kleding”, Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid 2010 (1), p. 7.

53

Amghar, Samir, “Niqab, quels sens pour celles qui le portent?”, Le Monde des Religions 40 (2010).

54

Davis, Britton, “Lifting the Veil: France’s New Crusade”, B.C. Int’l & Comp. L. Rev. 34(1) (2011), pp. 139-140.

61

Delgrange, Xavier, “Quand la burqa passé à l’Ouest, la Belgique per-elle le Nord?”, in Quand la burqa passé à l’Ouest. Enjeux éthiques, politiques et juridiques, Roy, Olivier and Koussens, David (eds.) (Rennes: Presses universitaires de Rennes, forthcoming, 2013), p. 35; Hunter-Henin, “Why the French Don’t Like the Burqa: Laïcité, national Identity and Religious Freedom”, p. 617.

62

Winet, Evan D., “Face-Veil Bans and Anti-Mask Laws: State Interests and the Right to Cover the Face”, Hastings Int’l & Comp. L. Rev. 35 (2012), p. 244.

64

Krivenko, Ekaterina Yahyaoui, “The Islamic Veil and its Discontents: How do they Undermine Gender Equality”, Religion and Human Rights 7 (2012), pp. 20-21.

65

Mullally, Siobhan, “Civic Integration, Migrant Women and the Veil: at the Limits of Rights?”, The Modern Law Review 74(1) (2011), p. 34.

66

Delgrange, “Quand la burqa passé à l’Ouest, la Belgique per-elle le Nord?”, p. 24.

67

French Council of State, “Etude relative aux possibilités juridiques d’interdiction du port du voile integral”, p. 26.

69

Tyler, “Procedural Justice and the Courts”, p. 30.

72

Delgrange, Xavier, “La loi ‘anti-burqa’ comme symptom”, Politique-Revue des débats 74 (2012), p. 47.

77

van Sasse van Ysselt, “Over het verbod op het dragen van een gezichtssluier en van andere gelaatsbedekkende kleding”, p. 7.

79

Gérin, “Rapport d’information fait en application de l’article 145 du règlement au nom de la mission d’information sur la pratique du port du voile intégral sur le territoire national”, p. 15-16; See Krivenko, “The Islamic Veil and its Discontents: How do they Undermine Gender Equality”, p. 21.

80

Hennette-Vauchez, Stéphanie, “La burqa, la femme et l’Etat”, Raison Publique (2010) at http://www.raisonpublique.fr/article317.html. (Last accessed: 31/10/2012)

84

Leane, “Rights of ethnic Minorities in Liberal Democracies: Has France Gone too far in Banning Muslim Women from wearing the Burka?”, p. 1054.

88

Binte Ismail, Nur Syahidah, “Ban of the Burqa in France”, Ignite 3(1) (2011), p. 20.

90

Mullally, “Civic Integration, Migrant Women and the Veil: at the Limits of Rights?”, p. 32.

91

Nanwani, “The Burqa Ban: An Unreasonable Limitation on Religious Freedom or a Justifiable Restriction?”, p. 1447.

92

Laborde, Cécile, “State Paternalism and Religious Dress”, International Journal of Constitutional Law 10(2) (2012), p. 13.

93

Tyler, “What is procedural justice?: Criteria used by citizens to assess the fairness of legal procedures”, p. 129.

94

Hammarberg, Thomas, “Human Rights in Europe: no grounds for complacency”, Council of Europe Publishing (2011), p. 41; Joppke, “Limits of Restricting Islam: The French Burqa Law of 2010”, p. 28; Leane, “Rights of ethnic Minorities in Liberal Democracies: Has France Gone too far in Banning Muslim Women from wearing the Burka?”, p. 1060; Van der Schyff and Overbeeke, “Exercising religious freedom in the public space: a comparative and European Convention analysis of general burqa bans”, p. 15.

96

Delgrange, “Quand la burqa passé à l’Ouest, la Belgique perd-elle le Nord?”, pp. 25 and 33.

99

Joppke, “Limits of Restricting Islam: The French Burqa Law of 2010”, p. 1.

114

Martinez-Torron, Javier, “The (Un)protection of Individual Religious Identity in the Strasbourg Case Law”, Ox. J Law Religion (2012), pp. 13-14; Evans, Carolyn, Freedom of Religion under the European Convention on Human Rights (Oxford: 2001), pp. 120-124.

115

Rorive, Isabelle, “Religious Symbols in the Public Space: In search of a European Answer”, Cardozo L. Rev. (2008-2009), p. 2674.

117

Cf. Nussbaum, Martha, The New Religious Intolerance, p. 79.

121

Martinez-Torron, “The (Un)protection of Individual Religious Identity in the Strasbourg Case Law”, p. 25.

122

Martinez-Torron, Javier, “Limitations on Religious Freedom in the Case Law of the European Court of Human Rights”, Emory Int’l L. Rev. 19 (2005), p. 607.

124

Leane, “Rights of ethnic Minorities in Liberal Democracies: Has France Gone too far in Banning Muslim Women from wearing the Burka?”, p. 1054; Krivenko, “The Islamic Veil and its Discontents: How do they Undermine Gender Equality”, p. 19; Evans, Malcolm, Manual on the Wearing of Religious Symbols in Public Areas, (Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing, 2009), p. 44.

125

Krivenko, “The Islamic Veil and its Discontents: How do they Undermine Gender Equality”, p. 27.

126

Lewis, Tom, “What not to wear: Religious rights, the European Court, and the margin of appreciation”, ICLQ, vol. 56 (2007), p. 414.

129

ECtHR, Kokkinakis v. Greece, 25 May 1993, para. 31.

130

Martinez-Torron, Javier, “The (Un)protection of Individual Religious Identity in the Strasbourg Case Law”, Ox. J Law Religion (2012), p. 2.

131

See for example Rorive, Isabelle, “Religious Symbols in the Public Space: In search of a European Answer”, Cardozo L. Rev. (2008-2009) and Lewis, “What not to wear: Religious rights, the European Court, and the margin of appreciation”.

132

Cf. Ferrari, Silvio, “The Strasbourg Court and Article 9 of the European Convention of Human Rights: A Quantitative Analysis of the Case Law” in The Lautsi Papers: Multidisciplinary Reflections on Religious Symbols in the Public School Classroom, Temperman, Jeroen (ed.) (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2012) p. 23 and Martinez-Torron, “The (Un)protection of Individual Religious Identity in the Strasbourg Case Law”, p. 6.

146

Hammarberg, Thomas, “Human Rights in Europe: no grounds for complacency”, Council of Europe Publishing (2011), p. 36.

149

Resolution 1743 (2010) Islam, Islamism and Islamophobia in Europe.

150

Recommendation 1927 (2010) Islam, Islamism and Islamophobia in Europe, para. 3.13.

152

See also Tulkens, Françoise, “The European Convention on Human Rights and Church-State Relations: Pluralism vs. Pluralism”, Cardozo Law Review 30(6) (2009), p. 2587.

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