Muslims’ Day-to-Day Handling of Property and the Adherence to Islamic Norms

A Systematic Review of Studies for Western Europe

In: Journal of Muslims in Europe
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  • 1 Erlangen Center for Islam and Law in Europe (EZIRE) Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg

The aim of this work is to answer the question: “What role do Islamic norms play in property-related attitudes and behaviour of Muslims living in Western European societies?” To this end, a systematic review of electronic journal databases was undertaken to identify academic works published on the matter up to August 2013. Twenty relevant papers were identified, all of which contained original data. The empirical results of the studies show that Muslims in Western Europe incorporate Islamic norms in their decisions in everyday situations and secular life.

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  • 2

    Carruthers, Bruce J. and Laura Ariovich, “The Sociology of Property Rights”, Annual Review of Sociology, 30 (2004), p. 25, pp. 23-46.

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  • 3

    Opp, Karl-Dieter, “Norms”, in International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, Smelser, Neil J. and Paul B. Baltes (eds.) (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2001), pp. 10714-10720.

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  • 4

    Opp, “Norms”, p. 10714.

  • 6

    Kuran, Timur, “Behavioral Norms in the Islamic Doctrine of Economics: A Critique”, Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 4 (1983), pp. 353-379, here: p. 358; Asutay, Mehmet, “A Political Economy Approach to Islamic Economics: Systemic Understanding for an Alternative Economic System”, Kyoto Bulletin of Islamic Area Studies, 1 (2007), pp. 1-15, here: p. 4; Ahmed, Habib, “Analytical Tools of Islamic Economics: A Modified Marginalist Approach”, Theoretical Foundations of Islamic Economics, Ahmed, Habib (ed.) (Islamic Development Bank, Jeddah, 2002) pp. 123-143.

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  • 8

    Kuran, “Behavioral Norms”, pp. 358-361.

  • 9

    Kuran, “Behavioral Norms”, p. 358.

  • 10

    Kuran, “Behavioral Norms”, p. 358; see also Asutay, “Political Economy”, p. 5; Choudhoury, Masudul Alam, “Principles of Islamic Economics”, Middle Eastern Studies, 19 (1983), pp. 93-103, here: p. 93.

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  • 11

    Ali, Abbas, “Scaling an Islamic Work Ethic”, The Journal of Social Psychology, 128 (1988), pp. 575-583, here: p. 576.

  • 12

    Kuran, “Behavioral Norms”, p. 358.

  • 14

    Choudhoury, “Principles of Islamic Economics”, p. 94.

  • 15

    Kuran, “Behavioral Norms”, p. 359.

  • 16

    Ali, Abbas J. and Abdullah Al-Owaihan, “Islamic Work Ethic: A Critical Review”, Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 15 (2008), pp. 5-19, here: p. 12.

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  • 17

    Kuran, “Behavioral Norms”, p. 359; cf. Ahmed, “Analytical Tools”, p. 134.

  • 18

    Kuran, “Behavioral Norms”, p. 359, see also Choudhury, “Principles of Islamic Economics”, p. 94; Asutay, “Political Economy”, p. 6.

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  • 19

    Kuran, “Behavioral Norms”, p. 360.

  • 20

    Asutay, “Political Economy”, p. 5.

  • 21

    Kuran, “Behavioral Norms”, p. 360.

  • 22

    Asutay, “Political Economy”, p. 5.

  • 23

    Wimberley, Dale W., “Religion and Role Identity”, Sociological Quarterly, 30 (1989), pp. 125-142, here: p. 130.

  • 24

    Glock, Charles Y., “The Religious Revival in America?”, in Religion and the Face of America, Zahn, Jane C. (ed.) (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1959), pp. 25-42; Glock, Charles Y., “On the Study of Religious Commitment”, Religious Education, 57 (1962), pp. 98-110.

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  • 26

    Glock, “Religious Commitment”, p. 99.

  • 27

    Lewis, Alan and Craig Mackenzie, “Morals, Money, Ethical Investing and Economic Psychology”, Human Relations, 53 (2000), pp. 179-191, see particularly p. 180.

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  • 28

    Lindridge, Andrew, “Are We Fooling Ourselves when We Talk about Ethnic Homogeneity? The Case of Religion and Ethnic Subdivisions amongst Indians living in Britain”, Journal of Marketing Management, 26 (2010), pp. 441-472; Cutler, Bob D., “Religion and Marketing: Important Research Area or a Footnote in the Literature?”, Journal of Professional Services Marketing, 8 (1991), pp. 153-164.

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  • 29

    Hirschi, Travis and Rodney Stark, “Hellfire and Delinquency”, Social Problems, 17 (1969), pp. 202-213.

  • 30

    Hirschi and Stark, “Hellfire”, p. 202.

  • 32

    Becker, Gary S., A Treatise on the Family (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981).

  • 33

    Azzi, Corry and Ronald Ehrenberg, “Household Allocation of Time and Church Attendance”, Journal of Political Economy, 83 (1975), pp. 27-57, here: p. 33.

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  • 34

    Kahf, Monzer, “Islamic Economics: Notes on Definition and Methodology”, Review of Islamic Economics, 13 (2003), pp. 23-47, here: pp. 37, 39; Arif, Muhammad, “Toward a Definition of Islamic Economics: Some Scientific Considerations”, Journal of Research in Islamic Economics, 2 (1985), pp. 79-93, here: pp. 88-89; Asutay, “Political Economy”, p. 6; Azid, Toseef, “Anthology of Islamic Economics: Review of Some Basic Issues”, Review of Islamic Economics, 13 (2010), pp. 165-194, here: p. 178.

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  • 35

    Middleton, Russell and Snell Putney, “Religion, Normative Standards, and Behavior”, American Sociological Association, 25 (1962), pp. 141-152, here: p. 142.

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  • 36

    Cochran, John K. and Ronald L. Akers, “Beyond Hellfire: An Exploration of the Variable Effects of Religiosity on Adolescent Marijuana and Alcohol Use”, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 26 (1989), pp. 198-225, here: p. 200.

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  • 38

    Burkett, Steven R. and Mervin White, “Hellfire and Delinquency: Another Look”, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 13 (1974), pp. 455-462.

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  • 39

    Weaver, Gary R. and Bradley R. Agle, “Religiosity and Ethical Behavior in Organizations: A Symbolic Interactionist Perspective”, The Academy of Management Review, 27 (2002), pp. 77-97.

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  • 40

    Ellison, Christopher G., “Rational Choice Explanations of Individual Religious Behavior: Notes on the Problem of Social Embeddedness”, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 34 (1995), pp. 89-97, here p. 91.

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  • 41

    Ellison, “Rational Choice”, p. 92.

  • 44

    Sherkat, Darren E., “Embedding Religious Choices: Integrating Preferences and Social Constraints into Rational Choice Theories of Religious Behavior”, in Rational Choice Theory and Religion, Young, Lawrence A. (ed.) (New York: Routledge, 1995), pp. 65-86.

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  • 45

    Berger, Peter, Zur Dialektik von Religion und Gesellschaft. Elemente einer soziologischen Theorie (Frankfurt: Fischer Verlag, 1973), p. 10.

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  • 46

    Bruce, Steve, God is Dead. Secularization in the West (Oxford: Black, 2002), p. 3.

  • 48

    Erol, Cengiz and Radi El-Bdour, “Attitudes, Behavior, and Patronage Factors of Bank Customers towards Islamic Banks”, International Journal of Bank Marketing, 7 (1989), pp. 31-37.

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  • 52

    McPherson, Mark, “Business Practices within South Asian Family and Non-Family Firms”, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, 16 (2010), pp. 389-413.

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  • 53

    Bucerius, Sandra, “Drogendealer im Spannungsfeld zwischen islamischen Werten, Alltag in Deutschland und Kriminalität”, Zeitschrift für Soziologie, 37 (2008), pp. 246-265; Lindridge “Ethnic Homogeneity”.

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  • 54

    Bonne, Karijn and Wim Verbeke, “Muslim Consumers’ Attitude towards Meat Consumption in Belgium: Insights form a Means-end Chain Approach”, Anthropology of Food, 5 (2006); Bonne, Karijn, Vermeir, Iris, Begeaud-Blackler, Florence and Wim Verbeke, “Determinants of Halal Meat Consumption in France”, British Food Journal, 109 (2007), pp. 367-386; Bonne, Karijn, Vermeir, Iris, and Wim Verbeke, “Impact of Religion on Halal Meat Consumption Decision Making in Belgium”, Journal of International Food and Agribusiness Marketing, 21 (2009), pp. 5-26.

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  • 56

    Denscombe, Martyn, “Ethnic group and alcohol consumption: the case of 15-16-year-olds in Leicestershire”, Public Health, 109 (1995), pp. 133-142; Denscombe, Martyn; Drucquer, Nicky, “Diversity within ethnic groups: alcohol and tobacco consumption by young people in the East Midlands”, Health Education Journal, 59 (2000), pp. 340-350. Only the more recent publication by Denscombe and Drucquer was considered for review.

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  • 58

    Muhamad, Nazlida and Dick Mizerski, “The Constructs Mediating Religions’ Influence on Buyers and Consumers”, Journal of Islamic Marketing, 1 (2010), pp. 124-135, here: p. 124.

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  • 59

    Bradby, Hannah and Rory Williams, “Is Religion or Culture the Key Feature in Changes in Substance Use after Leaving School? Young Punjabis and a Comparison Group in Glasgow”, Ethnicity and Health, 11 (2006), pp. 307-324; Cochrane, Raymond and Sukhwant Bal, “The Drinking Habits of Sikh, Hindu, Muslim and White Men in the West Midlands: A Community Survey”, British Journal of Addiction, 85 (1990), pp. 759-769; Denscombe/Drucquer, “Diversity”; Kohli, Harpreet S., “A Comparison of Smoking and Drinking among Asian and White Schoolchildren in Glasgow”, Public Health, 103 (1989), pp. 433-439.

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  • 67

    Esser, Hartmut, “What’s Wrong with Variable Sociology?”, European Sociological Review, 12 (1996), pp. 159-166.

  • 69

    Fishbein, Martin and Icek Ajzen, Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: an Introduction to Theory and Research (Reading: Addison-Wesley, 1975); Ajzen, Icek and Martin Fishbein, Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1980).

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  • 70

    Ajzen, Icek, Attitudes, Personality and Behavior (Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1988); Ajzen, Icek, “The Theory of Planned Behavior”, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 50 (1991), pp. 179-211.

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  • 76

    Ibid., pp. 158, 162.

  • 77

    Ibid, p. 161.

  • 78

    Ibid., p. 154.

  • 79

    Ali and al-Owaihan, “Islamic Work Ethic”, p. 12.

  • 81

    Ibid., p. 406.

  • 83

    Bucerius, “Drogendealer”, p. 257.

  • 84

    Lindridge, “Ethnic Homogeneity”, p. 465.

  • 85

    Ibid., p. 466.

  • 90

    Conner, Mark and Christopher J. Armitage, “Extending the Theory of Planned Behavior: A Review and Avenues for further Research”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 28 (1998), pp. 1429-1464.

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  • 91

    Bonne et al., “Determinants”, p. 371.

  • 92

    Ibid., p. 379.

  • 96

    Cochrane and Bal, “Drinking Habits”, pp. 762-764; Heim et al., “Alcohol Consumption”, p. 222.

  • 102

    Dotinga et al., “Abstaining”, p. 53.

  • 103

    Bradby and Williams, “Religion or Culture”, p. 317.

  • 104

    Valentine et al., “Contemporary Cultures”, p. 11.

  • 105

    Heim et al., “Alcohol Consumption”, p. 222.

  • 106

    Ibid., p. 223.

  • 108

    Van Tubergen and Poortman, “Adolescent Alcohol Use”, p. 7.

  • 122

    Lindridge, “Ethnic Homogeneity”, p. 442.

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