Islamophobia without Muslims? The Case of Poland

in Journal of Muslims in Europe
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At the first glance Polish intolerance of Muslims—expressed in a variety of quantitative and qualitative studies—seems to be puzzling for two reasons. Firstly, Poland has a six century long tradition of peaceful coexistence with Tatars, indigenous Polish Muslims, thus Poles should be used to the Muslim Other. Secondly, the number of Muslims in Poland is marginal (approximately 0.1%), which makes them hardly visible in the public sphere. Based on four hypotheses constructed on two factors (the number of Muslims and the wider regional and European context) the article hopes to provide some preliminary explanations.

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References

8

Stefaniak, Postrzeganie, p. 16.

23

Stefaniak, Postrzeganie, p. 3.

29

Ogan, Christine et al., (2014). “The rise of anti-Muslim prejudice. Media and Islamophobia in Europe and the United States”. The International Communication Gazette, 76, 1, (2014), p. 41; Pew Research Center, Faith in European Project Reviving (June 2015).

31

Stefaniak, Postrzeganie, p. 32.

36

Pew Research Center, Faith, p. 22.

37

See e.g. Stefaniak, Postrzeganie, p. 28.

38

Bilewicz, Mowa nienawiści, p. 105.

47

Zick, Intolerance, p. 61.

48

Zick, Intolerance, p. 107.

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