“I Have Dutch Nationality, But Others Do Not See Me as a Dutchman, of Course”

Perception of and Participation in Society of Orthoprax Young Muslim Adults in the Netherlands

in Journal of Muslims in Europe

Abstract

This interview study examines the attitudes of orthoprax young Muslim adults in the Netherlands toward their context, by distinguishing their perceptions of society and their participation in society. In this study, we discover that orthoprax young Muslim adults oppose themselves to Dutch society and do not feel really connected to it. However, most of the time, they participate in society by having jobs, studying and having friends. We also see that respondents are particularly active in and involved with their own Islamic community. Respondents in many cases do not link their religious identity to their participation in society. This study shows three different styles of linking religion to participation: “Participating as far as Islam allows,” “Religion is very personal and individual,” and “Bridging the gap.” We discuss what the reason is for not linking religious identity to participation.

  • AlmaH.A. 1998. Identiteit door verbondenheid: Een godsdienstpsychologisch onderzoek naar identificatie en christelijk geloof (Kampen: Uitgeverij Kok).

  • AnthonyF.C.A.M. Hermans and C. Sterkens. 2007. “Religious Practice and Religious Socialization: Comparative Research among Christian, Muslim and Hindu Students in Tamilnadu, India”Journal of Empirical Theology20: 100-128.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • BauerJ.J.D.P. McAdams and A.R. Sakaeda. 2005. “Interpreting the Good Life: Growth Memories in the Lives of Mature, Happy People”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology88: 203-217.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • BaumeisterR.F. and M. Muraven. 1996. “Identity as Adaptation to Social, Cultural, and Historical Context”Journal of Adolescence19: 405-416.

  • BeekersD. 2014. “Pedagogies of Piety: Comparing Young Observant Muslims and Christians in the Netherlands”Culture and Religion15: 72-99.

  • BlogowskaJ. and V. Saroglou. 2011. “Religious Fundamentalism and Limited Prosociality as a Function of the Target”Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion50: 44-60.

  • BlogowskaJ. and V. Saroglou. 2013. “For Better or Worse: Fundamentalists’ Attitudes Towards Outgroups as a Function of Exposure to Authoritative Religious Texts”International Journal for the Psychology of Religion23: 103-125.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • BranscombeN.R.M.T. Schmitt and R.D. Harvey. 1999. “Perceiving Pervasive Discrimination among African-Americans: Implications for Group Identification and Well-being”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology77: 135-149.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • BraunV. and V. Clarke. 2006. “Using Thematic Analysis in Psychology”Qualitative Research in Psychology3: 77-101.

  • BronfenbrennerU. 1979. The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).

  • BuitelaarM.W. 1998. “Between Ascription and Assertion: The Representation of Social Identity by Women of Moroccan Descent in the Netherlands”Focaal32: 29-50.

  • BuijsF.F. Demant and A. Hamdy. 2006. Strijders van Eigen Bodem (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press).

  • CesariJ. 2003. “Muslim Minorities in Europe: The Silent Revolution” in Modernizing Islam: Religion in the Public Sphere in Europe and the Middle East edited by J.L. Esposito and F. Burgat (London: Hurst) pp. 251-269.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • CorbinJ. and A. Strauss. 2008. Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage).

  • CôtéJ.E. 1996. “Identity: A Multidimensional Approach” in Psychosocial Development during Adolescence edited by G.R. AdamsR. Montemayor and T.P. Gullotta (London: Sage Publications) pp. 130-180.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • de GraafB. 2011. “Religion Bites: Religieuze Orthodoxie op de Nationale Veiligheidsagenda”Tijdschrift voor Religie Recht en Beleid2: 62-80.

  • de KoningM. 2008. Zoeken naar een “Zuivere” Islam: Geloofsbeleving en Identiteitsvorming van Jonge Marokkaans-Nederlandse Moslims (Amsterdam: Bert Bakker).

  • DoosjeB.A. Loseman and K. van den Bos. 2013. “Determinants of Radicalization of Islamic Youth in the Netherlands: Personal Uncertainty, Perceived Injustice, and Perceived Group Threat”Journal of Social Issues69: 586-604.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • DuerdenM.D.S. Taniguchi and M. Widmer. 2012. “Antecedents of Identity Development in a Structured Recreation Setting: A Qualitative Inquiry”Journal of Adolescent Research27: 183-202.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • DurkheimE. 1915. The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (London: Free Press).

  • EriksonE.H. 1968. Identity Youth and Crisis (London: Faber & Faber).

  • ErsanilliE. 2009. “Identificatie van Turkse Migrantenjongeren in Nederland, Frankrijk en Duitsland”Migrantenstudies25: 42-58.

  • FadilN. 2013. “Performing Salat at Work: Secular and Pious Muslims Negotiating the Contours of the Public Belgium”Ethnicities13: 729-750.

  • FleischmanF. 2010. “Integratie en Religiositeit onder de Turkse Tweede Generatie in Berlijn en Amsterdam”Migrantenstudies26: 199-219.

  • FleischmannF. and K. Phalet. 2012. “Integration and Religiosity among the Turkish Second Generation in Europe: A Comparative Analysis across Four Capital Cities”Ethnic and Racial Studies35: 320-341.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • GijsbertsM. and J. Dagevos eds. 2009. Jaarrapport Integratie 2009 (Den Haag: Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau).

  • GrysmanA. and J.A. Hudson. 2010. “Abstracting and Extracting: Causal Coherence and the Development of the Life Story,” Memory18: 565-580.

  • GüngörD.F. Fleischmann and K. Phalet. 2011. “Religious Identification, Beliefs, and Practices among Turkish-Belgian and Moroccan-Belgian Muslims: Intergenerational Continuity and Acculturative Change”Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology42: 1356-1374.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • HerzfeldM. 2005. Cultural Intimacy: Social Poetics in the Nation-state (New York: Routledge).

  • HoggM.A.J.R. Adelman and R.D. Blagg. 2010. “Religion in the Face of Uncertainty: An Uncertainty-identity Theory Account of Religiousness”Personality and Social Psychology Review14: 72-83.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • IannacconeL.R. 1994. “Why Strict Churches Are Strong”American Journal of Sociology99: 1180-1212.

  • JettenJ.N.R. BranscombeM.T. Schmitt and R. Spears. 2001. “Rebels with a Cause: Group Identification as a Response to Perceived Discrimination from the Mainstream”Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin27: 1204-1213.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • JosselsonR. 1987. Finding Herself: Pathways to Identity Development in Women (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass).

  • KetnerS. 2009. “ ‘Ik denk niet in culturen … Ik denk eigenlijk meer in mijn geloof’: Waarom jongeren van Marokkaanse afkomst in Nederland de moslimidentiteit zo sterk benadrukken”Migrantenstudies1: 73-87.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • KinnvallC. and P. Nesbitt-Larking. 2011. “Citizenship Regimes and Identity Strategies Among Young Muslims in Europe” in Identity and Participation in Culturally Diverse Societies: A Multidisciplinary Perspective edited by A.E. AzziX. ChryssochoouB. Klandermans and B. Simon (Chichester: Wiley Blackwell) pp. 195-219.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • KorfD.J.B. YesilgözT. Nabben and M. Wouters eds. 2007. Van Vasten tot Feesten: Leefstijl Acceptatie en Participatie van Jonge Moslims (Utrecht: FORUM/ Uitgeverij Ger Guijs).

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • LairdL.D.W. Abu-Ras and F. Senzai. 2013. “Cultural Citizenship and Belonging: Muslim International Medical Graduates in the USAJournal of Muslim Minority Affairs33: 356-370.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • LaytonE.S.A. Hardy and D.C. Dollahite. 2012. “Religious Exploration among Highly Religious American Adolescents”Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research12: 157-184.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • LevinsonD.J. & LevinsonL.D. 1996. The seasons of a woman’s life (New York: Ballentine).

  • LoflandJ.D. SnowL. Anderson and L.H. Lofland. 2006. Analyzing Social Settings: A Guide to Qualitative Observation and Analysis (Toronto: Wadsworth).

  • MaliepaardM. and M. Gijsberts. 2012. Moslim in Nederland (Den Haag: Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau).

  • MaliepaardM.M. Gijsberts and M. Lubbers. 2012. “Reaching the Limits of Secularization? Turkish- and Moroccan-Dutch Muslims in the Netherlands 1998-2006”Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion51: 359-367.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • MalikJ. 2013. “Integration of Muslim Migrants and the Politics of Dialogue: The Case of Modern Germany”Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs33: 495-506.

  • MarciaJ.E.WatermanA.S.MattesonD.M.ArcherS.L. & OrlofskyJ. (eds.). 1993. Ego identity: A handbook for psychological research (New York: Springer Verlag).

  • McAdamsD.P. 2005. “What Psychobiographers Might Learn from Personality Psychology” in Handbook of Psychobiography edited by W.T. Schultz (New York, NY: Oxford University Press) pp. 64-83.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • McAdamsD.P. 2008. “Personal Narratives and the Life Story” in Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research edited by O.P. JohnR.R. Robins and L.A. Pervin (New York, NY: Guilford Press) pp. 241-261.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • MitchellC. 2006. “The Religious Content of Ethnic Identities”Sociology40: 1135-1152.

  • MummendeyA. and M. Wenzel. 1999. “Social Discrimination and Tolerance in Intergroup Relations: Reactions to Intergroup Difference”Personality and Social Psychology Review3: 158-174.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • NaberN.C. 2008. “‘Look, Mohammed the Terrorist is Coming’: Cultural Racism, Nation Based Racism, and the Intersectionality of Oppressions after 9/11” in Race and Arab Americans before and after 9/11: From Invisible Citizens to Visible Subjects edited by A.A. Jamal and N.C. Naber (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press) pp. 276-304.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • PearceL.D. and DentonM.L. 2011. A faith of their own: Stability and change in the religiosity of America’s adolescents (New York, NY: Oxford University Press).

  • PelsT.M. Gruijter and F. Lahri. 2008. Jongeren en hun Islam. Jongeren over hun Ondersteuning als Moslim in Nederland (Utrecht: Verwey-Jonker Instituut).

  • PehrsonS. and E.G.T. Green. 2010. “Who We Are and Who Can Join Us: National Identity Content and Entry Criteria for New Immigrants”Journal of Social Issues66: 695-716.

  • PhaletK. and D. Güngör. 2004. “Religieuze Dimensies, Etnische Relaties en Burgerschap: Turken en Marokkanen in Rotterdam” in Moslim in Nederland (Deel c) edited by K. Phalet and J. ter Wal (Den Haag: Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau).

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • PhaletK.G. Baysu and M. Verkuyten. 2010. “Political Mobilization of Dutch Muslims: Religious Identity Salience, Goal Framing, and Normative Constraints”Journal of Social Issues66: 759-779.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • RangoonwalaF.I.S.R. Sy and R.K.E. Epinoza. 2011. “Muslim Identity, Dress Code Adherence and College Adjustment among American Muslim Women”Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs31: 231-241.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • SaroglouV.I. PichonL. TrompetteM. Verschueren and R. Dernelle. 2005. “Prosocial Behavior and Religion: New Evidence Based on Projective Measures and Peer Ratings”Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion44: 323-348.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • SchachterE.P. 2005a. “Context and Identity Formation: A Theoretical Analysis and a Case Study”Journal of Adolescent Research20: 375-395.

  • SchachterE.P. 2005b. “Erikson Meets the Postmodern: Can Classic Identity Theory Rise to the Challenge?”Identitym5: 137-160.

  • SchachterE.P. and J.J. Ventura. 2008. “Identity Agents: Parents as Active and Reflective Participants in their Children’s Identity Formation”Journal of Research on Adolescence18: 449-476.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • SchinkelWillem. 2007. Denken in een Tijd van Sociale Hypochondrie: Aanzet tot een Theorie Voorbij de Maatschappij (Kampen: Klement).

  • SchmidtG. 2004. “Islamic Identity Formation among Young Muslims: The Case of Denmark, Sweden and the United States”Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs24: 31-45.

  • SlootmanM. 2016. “Substantive Signifiers? Ethnic and Religious Identifications among Second-generation Immigrants in the Netherlands”Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power23: 572-590.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • SmithC.M. EmersonS. GallagherP. Kennedy and D. Sikkink. 1998. American Evangelicalism: Embattled and Thriving (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press).

  • SnidermanP. and L. Hagendoorn. 2007. When Ways of Life Collide: Multiculturalism and its Discontents in the Netherlands (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).

  • SnidermanP.L. Hagendoorn and M. Prior. 2003. “De Moeizame Acceptatie van Moslims in Nederland”Mens en Maatschappij78: 199-217.

  • StarkR. and R. Finke. 2000. Acts of Faith: Explaining the Human Side of Religion (Berkeley: University of California Press).

  • SunierT. 2009. Beyond the Domestication of Islam: A Reflection on Research on Islam in European Societies (Amsterdam: VU University Amsterdam).

  • SunierT. 2010. “Islam in the Netherlands: A Nation Despite Religious Communities?” in Religious Newcomers and the Nation State: Political Culture and Organized Religion in France and the Netherlands edited by E. Sengers and T. Sunier (Delft: Eburon) pp. 115-130.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • SunierT. 2012. “Beyond the Domestication of Islam in Europe: A Reflection on Past and Future Research on Islam in European Societies”Journal of Muslims in Europe1: 189-208.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • Te GrotenhuisM. and P. Scheepers. 2001. “Churches in Dutch: Causes of Religious Disaffiliation in the Netherlands, 1937-1995”Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion40: 591-606.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • ThompsonJ.B. 1995. The Media and Modernity: A Social Theory of the Media (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press).

  • VerkuytenM. and A.A. Yildiz. 2007. “National (Dis)identification and Ethnic and Religious Identity: A Study among Turkisch-Dutch Muslims”Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin33: 1448-1462.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • VerkuytenM. and A.A. Yildiz. 2010. “Orthodoxie en Integratie van Turks Nederlandse Moslims”Mens & Maatschappij85: 6-26.

  • VerkuytenM.J. Thijs and G. Stevens. 2012. “Multiple Identities and Religious Transmission: A Study among Moroccan-Dutch Muslim Adolescents and their Parents”Child Development83: 1577-1590.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • VertovecS. 2001. “Moslimjongeren in Europa: Vermenging van Invloeden en Betekenissen” in Naar een Europese islam? Essays edited by D. Douwes (Amsterdam: Mets & Schilt) pp. 95-115.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • Visser-VogelE.WesterinkJ.De KockA.BarnardM. and BakkerC. 2012. Developing a framework for research on religious identity development of highly committed adolescents. Religious Education: The official journal of the Religious Education Association107: 108-121.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • WellmanJ.K. and K.E. Corcoran. 2013. “Religion and Regional Culture: Embedding Religious Commitment within Place”Sociology of Religion74: 496-520.

  • YounissJ.J.A. McLellan and M. Yates. 1999. “Religion, Community Service and Identity in American Youth”Journal of Adolescence22: 243-253.

  • YsseldykR.K. Matheson and H. Anisman. 2010. “Religiosity as Identity: Toward an Understanding of Religion from a Social Identity Perspective”Personality and Social Psychology Review14: 60-71.

    • Über Google Scholar suchen
    • Zitierung exportieren
  • ZolbergA.R. and L.W. Long. 1999. “Why Islam Is like Spanish: Cultural Incorporation in Europe and the United States”Politics and Society27: 5-38.

Kennzahlen

Insgesamt Im letzten Jahr In den letzten 30 Tagen
Aufrufe von Kurzbeschreibungen 109 78 8
Gesamttextansichten 153 139 6
PDF-Downloads 16 12 1