This article analyses the peacekeeping efforts of Brazil, an emerging power for which peacebuilding is a key element of its international presence, and which has been strongly critical of the dominant liberal paradigm. Peacebuilding is key to Brazil’s approach, as the country by tradition participates (with the contested exception of MINUSTAH) only in Chapter VI peace operations, abjuring the robust use of force. An activity such as peacebuilding which marries development and security concerns is an ideal setting for Brazil’s foreign policy aims; in order to gain a seat in global decisionmaking bodies, in the absence of hard power and the will to use it Brazil turns to peacebuilding to transform its domestic development successes into action in the security arena. The South American giant has also placed significant emphasis on Africa in part as a means to the end of underscoring – as a voice for the global South – its claim to greater international influence. This article will examine the motivations that underpin Brazil’s commitment to peacebuilding operations, as well as its commitment to that practice in Africa, which has taken place largely on a bilateral basis.
On soft power see J.S. Nye‘Soft Power’Foreign Policyvol. 80 1990 pp. 153-171; Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics (New York: PublicAffairs 2004); Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power (New York: Basic Books 1990). On its use by the BRICS emerging powers see for example T.M. Shaw A.F. Cooper and G.T. Chin “Emerging Powers and Africa: Implications for/from Global Governance?”.Politikon: South African Journal of Political Studies vol. 36 1 2009 pp. 27-44.
T.G. Weiss‘The Sunset of Humanitarian Intervention? The Responsibility to Protect in a Unipolar Era’Security Dialoguevol. 35 2004 p. 138; UN Department of Public Information ‘Secretary-General defends clarifies “Responsibility to Protect” at Berlin Event on “Responsible Sovereignty: International Cooperation for a Changed World”’ UN Document SG/SM/11701. Available at http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2008/sgsm11701.doc.htm (accessed 15 March 2013).
See Kenkel‘South America’s Emerging Power’op. cit.; and K.M. Kenkel ‘New missions and emerging powers: Brazil’s involvement in MINUSTAH’ in C. Leuprecht J. Troy and D. Last (eds.) Mission Critical: Smaller Democracies’ Role in Global Stability Operations Montréal Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press 2010 pp. 125-148.
A.C. Vaz and C.Y. A. InoueEmerging Donors in International Development Assistance: The Brazil Case (Ottawa: IDRC Partnership and Business Development Division2007) p. 10. Available at web.idrc.ca/uploads/user-S/12447281201Case_of_Brazil.pdf (accessed 15 March 2013).
C. Foley‘Brazil’s poverty makes its aid donations both natural and surprising’guardian.co.uk available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2010/jul/21/brazil-aid-donations-poverty-development (accessed 15 March 2013).
N. Kozloff‘Is Brazil the next cop on the beat in Africa? The Pentagon seems to hope so’Aljazeera.com. Available at http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2012/06/2012631 44317166915.html (accessed 15 March 2013).