This article seeks to reconcile a historicist sensitivity to how intellectually virtuous behavior is shaped by historical contexts with a non-relativist account of historical scholarship. To that end, it distinguishes between hierarchies of intellectual virtues and hierarchies of intellectual goods. The first hierarchy rejects a one-size-fits-all model of historical virtuousness in favor of a model that allows for significant varieties between the relative weight that historians must assign to intellectual virtues in order to acquire justified historical understanding. It grounds such differences, not on the historians’ interests or preferences, but on their historiographical situations, so that hierarchies of virtues are a function of the demands that historiographical situations (defined as interplays of genre, research question, and state of scholarship) make upon historians. Likewise, the second hierarchy allows for the pursuit of various intellectual goods, but banishes the specter of relativism by treating historical understanding as an intellectual good that is constitutive of historical scholarship and therefore deserves priority over alternative goods. The position that emerges from this is classified as a form of weak historicism.
Robert C. Roberts and W. Jay WoodIntellectual Virtues: An Essay in Regulative Epistemology (Oxford: Clarendon Press2007) p. 8. Linda Zagzebski makes a similar point in her “Recovering Understanding” in Matthias Steup (ed.) Knowledge Truth and Duty: Essays on Epistemic Justification Responsibility and Virtue (Oxford: Oxford University Press 2001) pp. 235–251. See also Wayne D. Riggs “Understanding ‘Virtue’ and the Virtue of Understanding” in Michael DePaul and Linda Zagzebski (eds.) Intellectual Virtue: Perspectives from Ethics and Epistemology (Oxford: Clarendon Press 2003) pp. 203–226; Jonathan L. Kvanvig The Value of Knowledge and the Pursuit of Understanding (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2003) pp. 185–203.
Adriaan H. B. BeukelaarHistoriography and Episcopal Authority in Sixth-Century Gaul: The Histories of Gregory of Tours Interpreted in their Historical Context (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht1994) pp. 52–54.