This introduction provides a general context for the papers collected in the following symposium. Focused broadly on social protest and resistance in the eastern Islamic lands during the nineteenth century, these articles provide a rare glimpse of grass roots activism and unrest that were so common throughout this world region in a very momentous period of transition. The acts of resistance explained and analyzed here targeted the structure and relations of power that emerged after the advent of new capital and modern state formation. They also shared other common or comparable features in their specific forms and nature, the diversity of groups that participated in them, the social networking that made them possible, the strategies and tactics employed by actors on the ground, and ultimately the language and ideology of dissent.
AshrafA.HekmatH.UdovitchA. L.“Merchants and Artisans and the Developmental Processes of Nineteenth-Century Iran,”The Islamic Middle East, 700-1900: Studies in Economic and Social History1981Princeton725750