Mufti ‘Iwāz and the 1816 “Disturbances at Bareilli”:Inter-Communal Moral Economy and Religious Authority in Rohilkhand

In: Journal of Persianate Studies
View More View Less
  • 1 Yale University

Purchase instant access (PDF download and unlimited online access):

€29.95$34.95

In the Spring of 1816, the North Indian town of Bareilli witnessed a series of protests following the imposition of a House Tax by the East India Company government. Under the leadership of Mufti ‘Iwāz, a local ‘ālem associated with reformist Sufi traditions, various Muslim and Hindu communities of Bareilli engaged in collective action which culminated in a violent confrontation. Reading court records against the grain, this paper argues that the protests represented a complex form of negotiation framed within Islamo-Persianate paradigms—including symbols, language, and authority ­structures—which continued to define modes of popular political expression in the early colonial period. By focusing on Mufti ‘Iwāz, the incident provides rare insights into the practical relationship between Muslim orthodoxy, communal dynamics, and political authority. I argue that with the collapse of Mughal rule, the mufti assumed a role as an intermediary between the people of Bareilli and Company officials derived from precolonial conceptions of moral, popular, and spiritual authority shared by Hindu and Muslim communities.

  • ‘Abd al-Hayy Mawlana Seyyed bin Fakhr al-din al-Hasani Nuzhat al-khawātir wa-bahjat al-masāmi wa-al-nawāzir 1947 Hyderabad, Deccan 8 vols.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ahmad A. “The Role of Ulama in Indo-Muslim History,” Studia Islamica 1970 No. 31 1 13

  • Alam M. Pollock Sheldon “The Culture and Politics of Persian in Pre-Colonial Hindustan,” Literary Cultures in History: Reconstructions from South Asia 2003 Berkeley University of California Press 131 198

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alam M. & Subrahmanyam S. “The Making of a Munshi,” Comparative Studies of South Asia 2004 24 no. 2 Africa, and the Middle East 61 72

  • Alavi, A. Haidar Mansura “Social protest and Cultural Defence: the Bareilly uprising of 1816,” Sufis, Sultans and Feudal Orders 2004 Delhi 250 260

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ‘Abd al-‘Aziz Muhadis Dehlavi Shah Fatāwā-e ‘Azizi 1987 Karachi

  • Husayn Ya’qub & Badāyuni Ziā’ Qādiri Akmal al-tārikh 1915 Badayun

  • Bahadur K. P. History of the Freedom Movement in India 1986 New Delhi

  • Bayly C. A. Rulers, Townsmen, and Bazaars, 1770-1870 1983 Cambridge

  • Bayly C. A. “The Pre-History of ‘Communalism’? Religious Conflict in India, 1700-1860,” Modern Asian Studies 1985 19 2 177 203

  • Bijnori R. A. Qiṣṣa-o aḥvāl-e Rohilla 2005 New Delhi Manohar Publishers & Distributors

  • Brennan L. Land Policy and Social Change in North India, Rohilkhand, 1800-1911 1978 Nedlands, Australia

  • Burgess J. The Chronology of Modern India for Four Hundred Years from the close of the Fifteenth Century, A.D. 1494-1894 1913 Edinburgh

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Buehler A. Revealed Grace: The Juristic Sufism of Ahmad Sirhindi (1564-1624) 2011 Louisville, KY Fons Vitae

  • Chaudhuri S. B. Civil Disturbances During the British Rule in India, 1765-1857 1955 Calcutta

  • Eaton R. M. Essays on Islam and Indian history 2000 New Delhi

  • Farrukhabadi Mufti Wali Allah Akbarabadi H. S. ‘Ahd-e Bangash 1965 Karachi n.d.

  • Freitag S. Collective Action and Community 1999 Berkeley

  • Friedmann Y. Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi: An Outline of His Thought and a Study of His Image in the Eyes of Posterity 2000 New Delhi

  • Guha R. Elementary Aspects of Peasant Insurgency in India 1999 Durham

  • Guha R. Guha Ranajit “The Prose of Counterinsurgency,” Subaltern Studies II, Writing on South Asian History and Society 1983 1 40

  • Habib I. Essays in Indian history—Towards a Marxist Perception 2002 London

  • Habib I. Peasant and Artisan Resistance in Mughal India 1984 Montreal

  • Hasan F. State and Locality in Mughal India: Power Relations in Western India, 1572-1730 2004 Cambridge

  • Heitler R. “The Varanasi House Tax Hartal of 1810-11,” Indian Economic and Social History Review 1972 10 no. 3 239 57

  • Husain I. The Rise and Decline of the Ruhela Chieftaincies in 18th Century India 1994 Delhi

  • Ikram S. M. Mawj-e kawsar: mosalmānon ki mazhabi aur Islami tārikh, dor-e jadid 1954 Lahore

  • Jalal A. Partisans of Allah: Jihad in South Asia 2010 Cambridge

  • Kugle S. A. Sufis & Saints’ Bodies: Mysticism, Corporeality, & Sacred Power in Islam 2007 Chapel Hill

  • Masud M. K. Metcalf Barbara “Adab al-Mufti: The Muslim Understanding of Values, Characteristics, and Role of a Mufti,” Moral Conduct and Authority: The Place of Adab in South Asian Islam 1984 Berkeley 124 145

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Metcalf B. Islamic Revival in British India: Deoband, 1860-1890 1982 Princeton

  • Moens S. M. Report on the Settlement of the Bareilly District, North Western Province 1874 Allahabad

  • Moon P. The British Conquest and Dominion of India 1989 London

  • Najm al-Ghani M. Khan Akhbār as-sanādid 1997 Rampur

  • Naqvi S. T. ‘A. Tārikh-e shu’arā’-e Rohilkhand Karachi 1989 1991 4 vols.

  • Nizami M. H. Tarikh-i Rohilkhand, 1707-1775 1986 Bareilli Must̤afa Ḥusain Nizami

  • Pandey G. The Construction of Communalism in Colonial North India 1994 Delhi

  • Qureshi I. H. The Muslim Community of the Indo-Pakistani Subcontinent 1962 The Hague

  • Raman B. Document Raj: Writing and Scribes in Early Colonial India 2012 Chicago

  • Rizvi S. A. A. Muslim Revivalist Movements in Northern India in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries 1965 Agra

  • Rizvi S. A. A. Shah ‘Abd al-Aziz 1982 Canberra

  • Robinson F. “Strategies of Authority in Muslim South Asia in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries,” Modern Asian Studies 2013 January 47 1 21

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robinson F. Canfield Robert L. “Perso-Islamic Culture in India from the Seventeenth to the Early 20th Century,” Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective 2002 Cambridge 104 131

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sa’ādat Yār Khan M. Tārikh gol-e reḥmat 2002 Rampur

  • Sanyal U. Devotional Islam and Politics in British India: Ahmad Riza Khan Barelwi and his Movement, 1870-1920 1996 Delhi

  • Scott J. Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance 1985 New Haven

  • Schimmel A. Mystical Dimensions of Islam 1975 Chapel Hill

  • Sharif J. Islam in India or the Qanun-e Islam: The Customs of the Musulmans of India 1921 Oxford

  • Sharif J. “Sketches of the Later History of British India: No. XII.—Disturbances at Bareilli,” The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British and Foreign India, China, and Australasia 1837 Jan.-Apr. Volume XXII 301 316

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith W. C. Modern Islam in India 1946 London

  • Spear P. India, A Modern History 1961 Ann Arbor, MI

  • Stephens J. “The Phantom Wahhabi: Liberalism and the Muslim Fanatic in mid-­Victorian India,” Modern Asian Studies 2013 January 47 1 22 52

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stewart C. Original Persian Letters and Other Documents, with Fac-similes 1825 London

  • Thomson E. P. Thomson Dorothy “The Moral Economy of the English Crowd in the 18th Century,” The Essential E. P. Thomson 2001 New York 316 377

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thornton E. Gazetteer of the Territories under the Government of the East-India Company 1857 London

  • Troll C. W. Muslim Shrines in India: Their Character, History and Significance 1989 Delhi

  • Umar M. Islam in Northern India During the Eighteenth Century 1993 Aligarh

  • Wade B. Ziad Zeenut “Music and Dance,” The Magnificent Mughals 2002 Karachi

  • Walter J. Understanding Popular Violence in the English Revolution. The Colchester Plunderers 1999 Cambridge

  • Wilson H. H. & Mill J. The History of British India from 1805 to 1835 1846 Volume II London

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 157 56 6
Full Text Views 207 1 1
PDF Views & Downloads 17 2 2