In 1962, Peter Ucko wrote his landmark work, The Interpretation of Prehistoric Anthropomorphic Figurines, challenging and permanently changing the prevailing view of prehistoric figurines as representations of a universal great mother goddess. His work focused on the Predynastic figurines of Egypt, and concluded that there was nothing divine about them. They were probably dolls, ancestor figures, talismanic pregnancy aids, tools for sex instruction and puberty rites, twin substitutes in graves and concubine grave figurines. Since then, this group of figurines has received minimal attention. Using Ucko’s four-stage methodology, this study more closely examines these figurines in the context of Ancient Egyptian culture and religion, with specific attention to the contemporary Sudanese religious beliefs and practices, which may share roots with Predynastic Egyptian culture. This study concludes that some Dynastic religious beliefs and iconography relating to female deities can be recognised in many of these figurines, and can be traced back to prehistoric Nilotic rituals.
ChamberlainLaura Kristine‘Durga and the Dashain Harvest Festival from the Indus to Kathmandu Valleys’ReVision2002June22http://www.accessmylibrary.com/article-1G1-91397852/durga-and-dashain-harvest.html.
HassanFekri A.FriedmanR.AdamsB.‘Primeval Goddess to Divine King. The Mythogenesis of Power in the Early Egyptian State’The Followers of Horus: Studies dedicated to Michael Allen Hoffman 1944-19901992OxfordOxbow Books307322