Through the intensification of migration, the number of Muslims has multiplied in ethnically Russian areas, including St. Petersburg. Within the heterogeneous Muslim community of the city, countless new communities and initiatives have emerged, but they increasingly face suspicions and restrictions from the authorities. These difficulties reflect the general political urge to exercise more control over religious activity in Russia. Nevertheless, discussions about the need to police Islamic activity contain arguments—similar to those in Western Europe—about the alleged incompatibility of Islam and modern secular societies. This article surveys the development and challenges of new Muslim communities in St. Petersburg in the 2010s. It is argued that the diversification of religiosity is an expected outcome of the pluralization of modern societies. Paradoxically, the restrictive politics that are based on the supposed illiberal, anti-modern nature of Islam promotes religious monopolies and thus a very traditional understanding of religiosity.
AitamurtoKaarina “Definitions of Islam and Muslim Minorities in Russia” in: SimonsGreg & WesterlundDavid (eds.) Religion State and Nation-Building in Post-Communist Eastern Europe (Farnham: Ashgate2015) 99−116.
Anon. “Spravka o musul’manskikh religioznykh organizatsii Sankt-Peterburga” 1 p. Internal document of the city committee for relations with religious organizations at the administration of the governor of St. Petersburg October 2013.
BekkinRenat & TagirdzhanovaAlmiraMusul’manskii Peterburg: Istoricheskii putevoditel’. Zhizn’ musul’man v gorode na Neve i ego okrestnostyakh [Muslim Petersburg: Historical Guide-book. The Life of Muslims in St. Petersburg and Its Suburbs] (Moscow & St. Petersburg: RAN2016).
ColemanJohn A. “Selling God in America: American Commercial Culture as a Climate of Hospitality to Religion” in: MadsenRichard et al (eds.) Meaning and Modernity: Religion Polity and Self (Berkeley: University of California Press2002) 136−149.
International Federation for Human Rights “A Society Under Control: Misuse of the Fight against Terrorism and Extremism in Russia” 29 July2009. http://www.refworld.org/docid/4a8424152f.html (accessed 17 August 2014).
JamalArif A. “Moving Out of Kazanistan: Liberal Theory and Muslim Context” in: MarranciGabriele (ed.) Muslim Societies and the Challenge of Secularization: An Interdisciplinary Approach (Berlin: Springer2010) 83−97.
KemperMichael “Mufti Ravil’ Gainutdin: The Translation of Islam into a Language of Patriotism and Humanism” in: BustanovAlfrid K. & KemperMichael (eds.) Islamic Authority and the Russian Language: Studies on Texts from European Russia the North Caucasus and West Siberia (Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Pegasus2012) 105−141.
KortmannMatthias & Rosenow-WilliamsKerstin “Islamic Umbrella Organizations and Contemporary Political Discourse on Islam in Germany: Self-Portrayals and Strategies of Interaction” Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs33/1 (2013) 41–60.
Press-sluzhba gubernatora i pravitel’stva Leningradskoi oblasti “Gubernator vstretilsya s muftiem Sankt-Peterburga i Severo-Zapadnogo regiona Rossii” Leningradskaya Oblast’30 January2013. http://www.lenobl.ru/news17845.html (accessed 19 November 2013).
TumanyanT. G. “Islam kak sotsiokul’turnyi factor migratsionnykh protsessov v Sankt-Peterburge” in: idem (ed.) Islam v Rossii: Kul’turnye Traditsii i Sovremennye Vyzovy. Materialy mezhdunarodnoi nauchnoi konferentsii (St. Petersburg: SPBGU2013) 101−105.