‘Phoenix from the Ashes’: Religious Communities Arising from Globalization

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When in the 1960s religious congregations were suffering from diminishing membership, the sociology of religion turned away from the study of organized religion in order to study private religiosity, even though new social forms of religion were emerging. The article addresses first the impact of globalization on the place of religious communities in the fabric of national and transnational society. Labor migration severs the individual from his or her transmitted loyalties and places him or her amid the risks of the labor market. Parallel to this, the nation state conveys public tasks into private hands in the realms of education, health care, social welfare, and sometimes security. Both changes open up new opportunities for religious communities. Second, the paper addresses the subjective side of the shift, focusing on the Abrahamic religions. They claim the promise given to Abraham—that he and his descendants will be blessed and become a great nation—for their communities. When the factual history contradicts that expectation, prophetic and apocalyptic visions of a bright future keep alive that faith. They summon the believers to fight for the well being of their community, to assist and support each other, and to claim public recognition for their community, since it is beneficial to the entire society. The article argues that this model of religious communality enabled believers in the past to appropriate official legal and social forms for their community. Max Weber in his Economy and Society also argued that religious communality remains a powerful social order in modern society. According to him its strength derives from the subjective religious expectations of social actors and the positive or negative impact their practices exercise on other social orders such as economy, family, state, and law.

‘Phoenix from the Ashes’: Religious Communities Arising from Globalization

in Journal of Religion in Europe

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2)

Peter L. BergerThe Sacred Canopy: Elements of a Sociological Theory of Religion (New York: Anchor Books1990) 134.

5)

Robert WuthnowBoundless Faith: The Global Outreach of American Churches (Berkeley: University of California Press2009).

6)

 See David MartinTongues of Fire: The Explosion of Protestantism in Latin America (Oxford: Blackwell1990); David Martin Pentecostalism: The World Their Parish (Oxford: Blackwell 2002).

7)

Stephen EllingtonThe Megachurch and the Mainline: Remaking Religious Tradition in the Twenty-First Century (Chicago: Chicago University Press2007).

8)

Stefano AllieviConflicts over Mosques in Europe: Policy Trends (London: NEF2009) 22–26 presents the figures for European countries and counts 8701 mosques serving migrants.

10)

Heidi CampbellExploring Religious Community Online: We Are One in the Network (New York: Peter Lang2005).

13)

Malcom D. EvansReligious Liberty and International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press1997) 172–226; Matthias Koenig “Institutional Change in the World Policy: International Human Rights and the Construction of Collective Identities” International Sociology 23 (2008) 95–114.

14)

José CasanovaPublic Religions in the Modern World (Chicago: Chicago University Press1994).

16)

 Cf. Gordon Anthony“Public Law, Pluralism, and Religion in Europe: Accommodating the Challenge of Globalisation,” Revue Européenne de Droit Public 17 (2005) 47–73here 47.

21)

Guy G. Stroumsa“From Abraham’s Religion to the Abrahamic Religions,” Historia Religionum: An International Journal 3 (2011) 11–22.

22)

Aaron W. HughesAbrahamic Religions: On the Uses and Abuses of History (Oxford: Oxford University Press2012).

24)

Hans G. KippenbergDie vorderasiatischen Erlösungsreligionen in ihrem Zusammenhang mit der antiken Stadtherrschaft (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp1991) 119–138.

26)

Tessa Rajak“Was There a Roman Charter for the Jews?” Journal of Roman Studies 74 (1984) 107–123and Rajak “Jewish Rights in the Greek Cities under Roman Rule: A New Approach” in: William S. Green (ed.) Approaches to Ancient Judaism (Studies in Judaism and Its Greco-Roman Context) vol. 5 (Atlanta: Scholars Press 1985) 19–35; see also Karl Leo Noethlichs Das Judentum und der römische Staat. Minderheitenpolitik im antiken Rom (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft 1996) 34–36 and Noethlichs. Die Juden im christlichen Imperium Romanum (4.–6. Jahrhundert) (Berlin: Akademie Verlag 2001) 58–71.

29)

L. Michael WhiteBuilding God’s House in the Roman World: Architectural Adaptation among Pagans Jews and Christians (The Social Origins of Christian Architecture), vol. 1 (Valley Forge, Penn.: Trinity Press1996); and White Texts and Monuments for the Christian Domus Ecclesiae in Its Environment (The Social Origins of Christian Architecture) vol. 2 (Valley Forge Penn.: Trinity Press 1997).

31)

Rudra Nita“Globalization and the Decline of the Welfare State in Less-Developed Countries,” International Organization 56 (2002) 411–445; Michael Bonner Mine Ener & Amy Singer (eds.) Poverty and Charity in Middle Eastern Contexts (Albany: SUNY 2003) part 3 The State as Benefactor.

33)

Joseph SchachtAn Introduction to Islamic Law (Oxford: Clarendon Press1964) 155–157; Doris Behrens-Abouseif “The Waqf: A Legal Personality?.” in: Astrid Meier Johannes Pahlitzsch & Lucian Reinfandt (eds.) Islamische Stiftungen zwischen juristischer Norm und sozialer Praxis (Berlin: Akademie 2009) 55–60.

35)

Brynar LiaThe Society of the Muslim Brothers in Egypt: The Rise of an Islamic Mass Movement 1928–1942 (Reading: Ithaca Press1998); Mariz Tadros The Muslim Brotherhood in Contemporary Egypt: Democracy Redefined or Confined? (London: Routledge 2012).

41)

James Davison HunterCulture Wars: The Struggle to Define America. Making Sense of the Battles over the Family Art Education Law and Politics (New York: Basic Books1991). For a critical look at the empirical scope of the concept see Morris P. Fiorina Samuel J. Abrams and Jeremy C. Pope Culture War? The Myth of a Polarized America 2nd ed. (New York & Toronto: Pearson Education & Longman 2006).

42)

Grace DavieReligion in Britain since 1945: Believing Without Belonging (Oxford: Blackwell1994).

46)

Ibid.Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (New York: Simon and Schuster2000) 65–79; here 67 and 69. Cf. Hans G. Kippenberg “The Social Capital of Religious Communities in the Age of Globalization” in: Panayotis Pachis & Donald Wiebe (eds.) Chasing Down Religion: In the Sights of History and the Cognitive Sciences Festschrift Luther Martin (Thessalonike: Barbounakis 2010) 215–232.

47)

Putnam“Democracy in America at Century’s End” 31.

48)

James S. ColemanFoundations of Social Theory (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press & Harvard University Press1990) 321.

49)

Alexander-Kenneth Nagel“Charitable Choice: The Religious Component of the US-Welfare Reform: Theoretical and Methodological Reflections on ‘Faith-Based-Organizations’ as Social Service Agencies,” Numen 53 (2006) 78–111.

50)

Amartya SenDevelopment as Freedom (Oxford: Oxford University Press2001) 20.

60)

James Clifford“Diasporas,” Cultural Anthropology 9 (1994) 302–338.

62)

 E.g. Peggy LevittGod Needs No Passport: Immigrants and the Changing American Religious Landscape (New York & London: The New Press2007).

64)

Michael CookForbidding Wrong in Islam: An Introduction (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press2003) 3.

72)

Reuven Paz“Islamic Legitimacy for the London Bombings,” PRISM 3/4 http://www.e-prism.org/images/PRISM_no_4_vol_3_-_Islamic_legitimacy.pdf (accessed February 1 2013)

73)

Shmuel BarWarrant for Terror: Fatwas of Radical Islam and the Duty of Jihad (Lanham, Md.: Rowan and Littlefield2006).

74)

Rüdiger LohlkerDschihadimus: Materialien (Vienna: Facultas2009); Mariella Ourghi Muslimische Positionen zur Berechtigung von Gewalt. Einzelstimmen Revisionen Kontroversen (Würzburg: Ergon 2010).

77)

KippenbergViolence as Worship87.

78)

Johannes J. G. JansenThe Neglected Duty: The Creed of Sadat’s Assassins and Islamic Resurgence in the Middle East (New York: Macmillan1986) 200.

79)

Mark JuergensmeyerGlobal Rebellion: Religious Challenges to the Secular State from Christian Militias to al Qaeda (Berkeley: University of California Press2008).

80)

Salwa IsmailRethinking Islamist Politics: Culture the State and Islamism (London: I. B. Tauris2003) 58–113.

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