The Transformers

Continuity and Change in the European Campaigns of American Evangelists Frank Buchman and Billy Graham, 1920–1960

in Journal of Religion in Europe
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This article compares two leading American evangelists Frank Buchman and Billy Graham as to the innovations they made in the transatlantic religious regimes before and after World War II. Differences in personality, in message and audience, in religious allies, in political expectations, and the changing conditions of European Protestantism explain their successive popularity. Buchman operated in the holiness tradition, Graham in the revivalist framework. Both offered persuasive examples of personal change that enabled European Protestants to find alternatives to the established relationship between public and private religion.

The Transformers

Continuity and Change in the European Campaigns of American Evangelists Frank Buchman and Billy Graham, 1920–1960

in Journal of Religion in Europe

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References

AndersJarlertThe Oxford Group Group Revivalism and the Churches in Northern Europe 1930–1945 with Special Reference to Scandinavia and Germany (Lund: Lund University Press1995).

de BaarMirjam Yme Kuiper & Hans Renders (eds.) Biografie & religie: de religieuze factor in de biografie (Amsterdam: Boom 2011).

BalbierUtaBilly Graham in Berlin: German Protestantism between Americanization and Rechristianization” Zeithistorische Forschungen/Studies in Contemporary HistoryOnline-Ausgabe 7 (2010) H.3. Url < http://www.zeithistorische-forschungen.de/16126041-Balbier-3-2010 > accessed July 1 2014.

OliverR. Barclay Whatever Happened to the Jesus Lane Lot? (Leicester, UK: Inter-Varsity Press1977).

Billy Graham Center ArchivesWheaton CollegeWheaton, Il, USA collection 338 box 29 file 22.

BoobbyerPhilipMoral Re-Armament in Africa in the Era of Decolonization” in StanleyBrian ed. Missions Nationalism and the End of Empire (Grand RapidsMI: Eerdmans2003) 21236.

BoobbyerPhilipThe Spiritual Vision of Frank Buchman (University Park, PA: Penn State University Press2013).

JoelA. Carpenter Revive Us Again: The Reawakening of American Fundamentalism (New York: Oxford University Press1993).

EllwoodDavidThe Shock of America: Europe and the Challenge of the Century (New York: Oxford University Press2012).

DonaldM. C. Englert, “Buchmanism or Moral Rearmament,”Interpretation12/3 (July 1958) 31016.

FalbyAlisonThe Modern Confessional: Anglo-American Religious Groups and the Emergence of Lay PsychotherapyJournal of History of the Behavioral Sciences 39 (Summer 2003) 25167.

FleischPaulDie Heiligungsbewegung: Von den Segenstagen in Oxford 1874 bis zur Oxford-Gruppen-Bewegung Frank Buchmans. Herausgegeben and eingeleitet von Jörg H. Ohlemacher (Giessen: Brunnen2003).

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StewardD. Govig “Ronald Fangen and the Oxford Group Movement in Norway” (Ph.D. dissertationNew York University1966).

GrahamBillyJust as I am: The Autobiography of Billy Graham ( New York: HarperCollins1997).

GriffinRogerFascism Totalitarianism and Political Religion (New York: Routledge2005).

GrubbNormanModern Viking: The Story of Abraham Vereide Pioneer in Christian Leadership (Grand Rapids: Zondervan1961).

Fr. John A. Hardon S.J. “An Evaluation of Moral RearmamentAmerican Ecclesiatistical Review 135 (July-December 1956) 21726.

HutchinsonMark and WolffeJohnA Short History of Global Evangelicalism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press2012).

HarryA.Ironside The Oxford Group Movement: Is It Scriptural? (4th ed.1943).

KeeKevinRevivalists: Marketing the Gospel in English Canada 1884–1957 (Toronto: McGill-Queen’s University Press2006).

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van der KooiC.van Staalduine-SulmanE. and ZwiepA.W. (eds.) Evangelical theology in transition: essays under the auspices of the Center of Evangelical and Reformation Theology (cert) (Amsterdam: VU University Press2012).

KrabbendamHansA Christian Bilderberg? The International Christian Leadership, 1948–1968” in KrabbendamHans and VerhoevenWil (eds.) Who’s the Boss? Leadership and Democratic Culture in America (Amsterdam: VU University Press2007) 18798.

KrabbendamHansZielenverbrijzelaars en zondelozen. Reacties in de Nederlandse pers op Moody, Sankey en Pearsall Smith, 1874–1878Documentatieblad voor de Nederlandse Kerkgeschiedenis na 1800 34 (May 1991) 3955.

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de LoorH.D.Nieuw Nederland loopt van stapel. De Oxford groep in Nederland een sociale beweging van het Interbellum (Kampen: Kok1986).

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2

Mark Hutchinson and John WolffeA Short History of Global Evangelicalism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press2012) 146–78.

6

David P. SetranThe College ‘Y’: Student Religion in the Era of Secularization (New York: Palgrave2007) 180–81. Sympathetic authors doubt the rumors about Buchman’s homosexual orientation (Boobbyer Spiritual Vision 29). This orientation is strongly suggested by his intimacy with young men and the absence of serious romantic engagements with women (despite a few efforts in his young adulthood) and the taboo on openly discussing and accepting homosexual feelings.

7

Daniel SackMoral Re-Armament: The Reinventions of an American Religious Movement (New York: Palgrave2009) 55; See the characterization by John M. Versteeg as “a holiness movement for the socially favored” Christian Century (23 January 1935). Boobbyer The Spiritual Vision 42–45.

8

KeeRevivalists138–39. Frank D. Buchman Remaking the World: The Speeches of Frank N.D. Buchman (London: Blandford Press 1947) 4 (address in Oxford in July 1934).

15

Govig“Ronald Fangen” 106–108 125–32. For an excellent analysis of the phases of the spread of the Oxford Group in Scandinavia in comparison to Germany and other countries see Anders The Oxford Group 154–434.

16

BuchmanRemaking the World49 64–68.

19

H.D. de LoorNieuw Nederland loopt van stapel. De Oxford groep in Nederland een sociale beweging van het Interbellum (Kampen: Kok1986). David Ellwood The Shock of America: Europe and the Challenge of the Century (New York: Oxford University Press 2012).

21

Martin Marty“M.R.A.: The New Druseanism,” Christian Century (31 March 1965) 399–401; Fr. John A. Hardon S.J. “An Evaluation of Moral Rearmament ” American Ecclesiatistical Review 135 (July-December 1956) 217–26. Philip Boobbyer “Moral Re-Armament in Africa in the Era of Decolonization” in Brian Stanley ed. Missions Nationalism and the End of Empire (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans 2003) 212–36. and

24

LongBilly Graham19–29. Timo Pokki America’s Preacher and His Message: Billy Graham’s View of Conversion and Sanctification (Lanham ny: University Press of America 1999) 90–92. Steven P. Miller Billy Graham and the Rise of the Republican South (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press 2009) 13–38.

25

Ian Randall“Conservative Constructionist: The Early Influence of Billy Graham in Britain,” Evangelical Quarterly 67.4 (1995): 309–333. Prospectus Billy Graham Continental Tour June 12–30 1954 p. 2: “These [visitors] returned to witness to their more skeptical countrymen opening doors that no foreigner could have otherwise entered.” Billy Graham Center Archives Wheaton College Wheaton Il usa collection 338 box 29 file 22. Uta Balbier “Billy Graham in Berlin: German Protestantism between Americanization and Rechristianization” Zeithistorische Forschungen/Studies in Contemporary History Online-Ausgabe 7 (2010) H.3. Url http://www.zeithistorische-forschungen.de/16126041-Balbier-3-2010 (accessed 1 July 2014).

26

BuchmanRemaking the World65.

27

SackMoral Re-Armament163–190. Edward Luttwak “Franco-German Reconciliation: the Overlooked Role of the Moral Re-Armament Movement” in Douglas Johnston and Cynthia Sampson (eds.) Religion The Missing Dimension of Statecraft (New York: Oxford University Press 1994) 37–63.

28

LongBilly Graham20–29. Miller Billy Graham 8–12 203–204 which ascribes considerable political power to Graham.

30

KeeRevivalists96–142; Martin E. Marty Modern American Religion. Vol. 2: The Noise of Conflict 1919–1941 (Chicago: University of Chicago 1991) 375; Hutchinson and Wolffe A Short History 165; and Joel A. Carpenter Revive Us Again: The Reawakening of American Fundamentalism (New York: Oxford University Press 1993).

33

MartinProphet86 190 306. Billy Graham Just as I am: The Autobiography of Billy Graham (New York: HarperCollins 1997) 50 303.

34

Hans Krabbendam“Zielenverbrijzelaars en zondelozen. Reacties in de Nederlandse pers op Moody, Sankey en Pearsall Smith, 1874–1878,” Documentatieblad voor de Nederlandse Kerkgeschiedenis na 1800 34 (May 1991) 39–55. Karl Heinz Voigt Die Heiligungsbewegung zwischen methodistischer Kirche und landeskirchlicher Gemeinschaft: die “Triumphreise” von Robert Pearsall Smith im Jahre 1875 und ihre Auswirkungen auf die zwischenkirchlichen Beziehungen (Wuppertal: Brockhaus 1996) 39–132.

38

Donald M. C. Englert“Buchmanism or Moral Rearmament,” Interpretation 12/3 (July 1958) 310–16. Some Evangelicals (in Europe) accepted Buchman because he encouraged people to meditate during quiet time “Dr. Klaus Bockmühl] was a godly man thoroughly evangelical. At the same time he was a convinced disciple of Frank Buchman…which was held in some suspicion by most American evangelicals. He Klaus never missed his morning Quiet Time during which he waited quietly to hear God speaking to him giving directions for the day.” (see Waldron Scott “Double Helix: A Missionary’s Odyssey” 685.) http://www.waldronscott.net/doublehelix/ (accessed 1 July 2014). In evangelical circles it has become a standard practice albeit not identical to Buchman’s. Buchman ascribed his thoughts to divine counsel Boobbyer Spiritual 34–35.

40

MillerBilly Graham217–20.

42

Charles TaylorA Secular Age (Cambridge: Harvard University Press2007) chapter 12. See for a description of the openness to spiritism and Eastern religions among the European aristocracy. Yme Kuiper “Bekering op de buitenplaats: adel religie en biografie in het interbellum” in Mirjam de Baar Yme Kuiper & Hans Renders (eds.) Biografie & religie: de religieuze factor in de biografie (Amsterdam: Boom 2011) 107–29.

43

David B. MarshallSecularizing the Faith: Canadian Protestant Clergy and the Crisis of Belief 1850–1940 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press1992) quoted in Kee Revivalist 221.

44

BoobbyerSpiritual54–58.

45

Andrew PrestonSword of the Spirit Shield of Faith: Religion in American War and Diplomacy (New York: Knopf2012) 297–303.

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